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  1. Michael Wirtz and Christine Volkmann, University of Wuppertal, Germany
  2. Social Entrepreneurship and Tourism |
  3. Social entrepreneurship and social business : an introduction and discussion with case studies

More even geographic coverage is also needed, and further insights can be gained through use of alternative methodologies. Discussions in this paper have implications for research through outlining systematically the state of current scholarship on social enterprise and networks. In so doing, insight is provided on what is known about social enterprise and networks. But also on what is not known and where further enquiry is needed. Direction is thus provided for future social enterprise and networks scholarship.


In this paper, how, and the extent to which, social enterprise and networks scholarship offers implications for practice and policy is considered. This paper makes a valuable contribution to social enterprise scholarship. It outlines the state of current knowledge and research on social enterprise and networks, identifying where and how relationships between social enterprise and networks have been studied, whilst also providing insights for what next in future social enterprise and networks research.

David Littlewood and Zaheer Khan "Insights from a systematic review of literature on social enterprise and networks", Social Enterprise Journal , Vol. Please share your general feedback. John L. Thompson "Social enterprise and social entrepreneurship: where have we reached?

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Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Please share your general feedback. You can start or join in a discussion here. Visit emeraldpublishing. Abstract Purpose — The purpose of this paper is to discuss social enterprises, social entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurs. Findings — The central argument is that if we see social enterprises, social entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurs bound together, operating with a common purpose and approach and pursuing the same ends, then we misunderstand this critically important sector. Please note you might not have access to this content.

This chapter examines the business model construct as a possible tool to analyze how social enterprises create value for their stakeholders. In particular it identifies different operational models and examines how they are particularly relevant to tourism and hospitality.

The chapter first reviews the extant literature on business models before moving on to examine their applicability to social enterprises. Key components of the business models are then analyzed in the context of tourism social enterprises. These include the identification of a value proposition, key resources, key networks, and an analysis of economic capital, revenue streams, cost structures, legal structures and marketing and distribution channels.

Michael Wirtz and Christine Volkmann, University of Wuppertal, Germany

This will provide a more consistent approach to analyzing in-depth case studies of tourism social enterprises in the future. The concept of social innovation has, in recent years, received increased attention yet has received limited attention in the academic tourism literature. This chapter on social innovations in tourism has three aims: first, to provide a conceptual overview of social innovation, particularly in context of social entrepreneurship; second, to link the theoretical concept to existing literature and themes in tourism research; and third, to provide an impetus for not only thinking about, but also enacting and performing social innovation in a tourism context.

At a general level, social innovation can be viewed as a process of collaborative innovation, where the innovation process benefits from networks, co-operation and co-production or as a social outcome , which changes social interactions and practices. With reference to examples from tourism, the chapter discusses new technologies and their effect on transforming social practices, on social innovations as a new form of governance, social entrepreneurship as one aspect of social innovation and the largely bottom-up and collaborative characteristics of social innovation.

This chapter discusses how social entrepreneurs fit into the existing tourism discourse taking place in the academic literature. There are many areas of discourse that intersect with social entrepreneurship however this chapter identifies those that are closest to the topic of tourism social entrepreneurship.

  1. Social Entrepreneurship: A Case Study From Brazil.
  2. Insights from a systematic review of literature on social enterprise and networks.
  4. It examines four areas of literature in particular; tourism entrepreneurs, sustainability, destination development and intrapreneurship. It then analyzes how introducing the concept of social entrepreneurs into these discussions can contribute to our understanding of the phenomenon and its development.

    The key argument is that research on social entrepreneurs is not just relevant for those interested in entrepreneurs it also effects our thinking on issues such as destination development, relationships between stakeholders, tourism policy and sustainability. The outcome of the chapter is to point the way for tourism researchers to extend the scope of research on this topic.

    Social Entrepreneurship and Tourism |

    A variety of food movements have social entrepreneurs at their forefront supporting more sustainable practices: Slow Food, eating local, minimizing food waste, expanding food access, and showing concern for animal welfare. The aim of this chapter is to contribute to the limited research on social entrepreneurs in food-related tourism ventures. Four semi-structured interviews were carried out with food entrepreneurs in North Carolina. Each of the entrepreneurs represents different stages of the food supply chain. Positive Theory of Social Entrepreneurship and Ecological Systems Theory were used as the theoretical frameworks underpinning the research.

    The research found that food entrepreneurs are consciously focused on value creation beyond the revenue generated by their business. Value was created by giving farmers a voice, providing healthy alternatives, providing education, minimizing environmental impacts, and striving to foster community. Finally, leveraging networks was identified as a key strategy by the social entrepreneurs.

    Social entrepreneurship and social business : an introduction and discussion with case studies

    Tourism is often employed as a vehicle for facilitating social-economic development, however its usefulness has been somewhat limited in relation to addressing social issues, and in particular, those issues relating to poverty. This is partly due to the lack of cross-sectoral interactions and knowledge exchange between private, public and third sectors that are needed to create effective and appropriate initiatives to leverage tourism for social benefits. Such traditional sectoral boundaries can be broken down through social entrepreneurship approaches which concomitantly, facilitate the creation and synergizing of social innovation that addresses persistent social issues.

    Yet to date, the utility of cross-sectoral knowledge dynamics still remains largely under-researched in both the social entrepreneurship and tourism literature.


    This chapter introduces readers to the concept of knowledge dynamics and discusses knowledge dynamics in the tourism and social entrepreneurship nexus via a case study of community-based tourism in Mai Hich, Vietnam. We argue that by gaining an enhanced understanding of cross-sectoral knowledge dynamics, we can strengthen the overall praxis of tourism and social entrepreneurship, and in particular, assist policymakers in fostering conditions that generate increased innovation.

    The evaluation of social enterprise projects has focused mainly on devising effective performance measurement methods and processes to justify the investment of resources and time committed to such activities. With increasing demands for accountability, effectiveness, evidence of return on investment and value-added results, evaluation activities have been driven by imperatives of objectivity in assessments and the development of tools that monetize the social outcomes and impacts of social enterprise projects.

    These traditional approaches to evaluation have also been widely adapted in tourism based social enterprises that seek to attain goals of poverty alleviation, empowerment of local communities, and improved livelihoods for those marginalized from mainstream tourism economic activities. This chapter argues that traditional approaches to evaluation may be limited in supporting social entrepreneurship projects with development objectives of empowerment and societal change.

    It is proposed that social enterprise projects involving community participation may be better positioned to achieve their developmental objectives by incorporating more of the principles of Participatory Evaluation PE and Empowerment Evaluation EE in the quest to harness the economic prowess of tourism for human development.

    The social enterprise revolution: Melody Hossaini at TEDxKLWomen 2013

    Enacting social entrepreneurship is about individual engagement, innovative ideas and creating social change. This article challenges this proposition of the individual social entrepreneur, rather social entrepreneurship is to be understood within the facilitating roles of networks through the process of mobilising collective interaction, trust and collaborate activities within networks. This case study considers the increasing flow of North Americans settling in Mexico to be social entrepreneurs. Their tourism-related business often has a social aim, not only generating economic growth but also addressing emerging socio-cultural needs in the Mexican communities.