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Juden in Frankreich heute Book 1 edition published in in German and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. De fuga et inventione by Philo Book 1 edition published in in Greek, Ancient and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Audience Level. Related Identities. Associated Subjects. Alternative Names. He immediately set about purchasing the remaining pieces of paper from the Arabs, and collected them into a book. It happened because the nature of hidden things is that they must be discovered at a suitable moment, when suitable souls reincarnate and enter into our world.
That is how The Zohar is revealed over time. The study of these writings was conducted in secret by small groups of Kabbalists. The first publication of this book was by Rabbi Moshe de Leon, in the thirteenth century in Spain. The second period is very important to the Kabbalah of our generation. This is the period of the Ari, Rabbi Yitzhak Luria, who created the transition between the two methods of Kabbalah study.
The first time the pure language of Kabbalah appeared was in the writings of the Ari. The Ari proclaimed the start of a period of open mass study of Kabbalah. The Ari was born in Jerusalem in A child when his father died, his mother took him to Egypt where he grew up at his uncle's house. During his life in Egypt, he made his living in commerce but devoted most of his time to studying Kabbalah.
Legend has it that he spent seven years in isolation on the island of Roda on the Nile where he studied The Zohar, books by the first Kabbalists, and writings by another of his generation, the Ramak, Rabbi Moshe Cordovero. In , he arrived in Safed in Israel. Despite his youth, he immediately started teaching Kabbalah.
His greatness was soon recognized; all the wise men of Safed, who were very knowledgeable in the hidden and revealed Torah, came to study with him, and he became famous. For a year and a half, his disciple Rabbi Chaim Vital committed to paper the answers to many of the questions that arose during his studies. The Ari left behind a basic system for studying Kabbalah.
His system of study is still in use today. The Ari died in , still a young man. His writings were archived according to his last wish, in order not to reveal his doctrine before the time was ripe. The great Kabbalists provided the method and taught it, they knew that their generation was still unable to appreciate its dynamic. They therefore often preferred to hide or even burn their writings. We know that Baal Hasulam burned and destroyed a major part of his writings.
There is special significance in the fact that the knowledge was committed to paper, and later destroyed. Whatever is revealed in the material world affects the future, and is easier to be revealed a second time. Rabbi Vital ordered other parts of the Aris writings to be hidden and buried with him. A portion was bequeathed to his son, who arranged the famous writings, The Eight Gates. Much later, a group of scholars headed by Rabbi Vitals grandson removed another portion from the grave. Study of The Zohar in groups started only during the period of the Ari. Following that, the study of The Zohar prospered for two hundred years.
In the great Hassidut period - end of 19th century , almost every great rabbi was a Kabbalist. Then, at the beginning of the twentieth century, interest in Kabbalah waned until it almost completely disappeared. The third period contains an additional method to the Ari's doctrines, written in our generation by Rabbi Yehuda Ashlag, who authored the commentary of the Sulam ladder of The Zohar, and the Ari's teachings.
His method is particularly suited to the souls of our generation. Born in in Lodz, Poland, in his youth he absorbed a deep knowledge of the written and oral law, and later became a judge and teacher in Warsaw. In , he immigrated to Israel with his family and became the rabbi of Givat Shaul in Jerusalem. He was already immersed in writing his own doctrine when he began to pen the commentary of The Zohar in Baal Hasulam finished writing his commentary of The Zohar in He died the following year and was buried in Jerusalem at the Givat Shaul cemetery.
His books are structured according to his fathers instructions. They gracefully elaborate on his father's writings, facilitating our comprehension of his father's commentaries as bequeathed to our generation. The Rabash was born in Warsaw in and immigrated to Israel with his father.
Only after his marriage did his father include him in study groups of selected students learning the hidden wisdom -- Kabbalah. He was soon allowed to teach his father's new students. Following his father's death, he took it upon himself to continue teaching the special method he had learned. Despite his great achievements, like his father, he insisted on keeping to a very modest way of life.
During his lifetime he worked as a cobbler, construction worker, and clerk. Externally, he lived like any ordinary person, but devoted every spare moment to studying and teaching Kabbalah. The Rabash died in He is the only one in this generation who has written a fully comprehensive and updated commentary of The Zohar and the writings of the Ari. These books, with the addition of his son, Rabbi Baruch Ashlag's essays, the Rabash, are the only source we can use to assist us in further progress.
When we study their books, we are actually studying The Zohar, and the Ari's writings, through the most recent commentaries the past fifty years. This is a life belt for our generation, since it enables us to study ancient texts as if they had been written now, and to use them as a springboard to spirituality. Baal Hasulam's method suits everyone, and the sulam he built in his writings ensures that none of us need fear studying Kabbalah. Anyone learning Kabbalah is assured that within three to five years he will be able to reach spiritual spheres, all realities, and divine understanding, the name given to that which is above and beyond us and not yet felt by us.
If we study according to the books of Rabbi Yehuda Ashlag, we can reach true correction. The study method is constructed to awaken in us a desire to understand the upper worlds. We are given a greater desire to get to know our roots and to connect to them. We are then empowered to improve and to fulfill ourselves. All three great Kabbalists are of the same soul: first appearing as Rabbi Shimon, on a second occasion as the Ari, and the third time as Rabbi Yehuda Ashlag.
On each occasion, the timing was ripe for further revealment because the people of that generation were worthy, and the soul descended to teach the method suitable for that generation. Each generation is increasingly worthy of discovering The Zohar. What was written by Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochai and hidden was later discovered by the generation of Rabbi Moshe de Leon, and then of the Ari, who started to interpret it in the language of Kabbalah. These writings were also stored away and partly rediscovered when the timing was right, while our generation is privileged to learn the Sulam, which enables everyone to study Kabbalah and to correct himself now.
We see that The Zohar speaks to each generation. It is more revealed and better understood in each generation than in previous ones. Each generation opens the book of The Zohar in a unique way, suited to the roots of its soul. Importantly, at the same time, an attempt is made to conceal kabbalistic writings so that those feeling the need to seek them will discover them by themselves. The Kabbalists evidently know that the process of change requires two conditions: correct timing, and maturity of the soul.
We are witnessing a very interesting occurrence characterized by the breakthrough and signaling of a new era in the study of Kabbalah. Whenever Kabbalah is discussed, statements are tossed about such as: One can go mad studying Kabbalah; it is safe to study Kabbalah only after the age of forty; a man must be married and have at least three children before embarking on its study; women are forbidden to study Kabbalah, etc.
Kabbalah is open to all. It is for those who truly wish to correct themselves in order to attain spirituality. The need comes from the souls urge to correct. That is actually the only test to determine whether a person is ready to study Kabbalah: the desire to correct. This desire must be genuine and free of outside pressure since only ones self can discover ones true desire. The great Kabbalist, the Ari, wrote that from his generation onwards Kabbalah was intended for men, women and children, and that all could and should study Kabbalah.
The greatest Kabbalist in our generation, Yehuda Ashlag, "Baal Hasulam," left a new study method for this generation. It is suitable for anyone wishing to do so. A person finds his way to Kabbalah when he is no longer satisfied by material reward and hopes studying will provide answers, clarification and new opportunities.
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He no longer finds solutions in this world to the significant questions about his existence. Usually, the hope of finding answers is not even cognitive; he simply takes an interest and finds it necessary. Such a person has questions: Who am I? Why was I born? Where do I come from? Where am I going? Why do I exist in the world? Was I already here? Will I reappear?
Why is there so much suffering in the world? Can it somehow be avoided? How can I attain pleasure, completeness, peace of mind? Unconsciously, he feels the answers to these questions can be found only beyond the realm of this world. The one answer to these questions is to know and feel the upper worlds, and the way to do so is through Kabbalah. Through its wisdom, man enters the upper worlds with all his feelings. They are worlds that provide all of the reasons for his existence in this world. He takes control of his life, thereby attaining his goal tranquility, pleasure and completeness while he is still in this world.
In the Introduction to the Study of the Ten Sefirot it is written: "If we put our hearts into answering just one famous question, I am sure all questions and doubts will disappear from the horizon and we will find they are gone. And that tiny question is What is the point of our lives? Anyone reaching serious study is someone who feels this question and asks himself constantly: "What is the point of our lives?
Unfortunately, there is not a sufficient desire today to study Kabbalah. People want quick cures. They want to learn about magic, meditation and healing associated with Kabbalah. They are not truly interested in the revealment of the upper worlds, or how to reach spiritual realms. This does not qualify as a genuine desire to study Kabbalah. When the time is right and the need is there, a person will look for a framework of study and will not be satisfied until he finds one.
Everything depends on the root of man's soul and that point in his heart. A true desire to discover and feel the upper worlds within will lead him to the way of Kabbalah. The primary objective of Kabbalah is to achieve spirituality.
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Only one thing is necessary proper instruction. If a person studies Kabbalah the right way, he progresses without forcing himself as there can be no coercion in spirituality. The aim of study is for a person to discover the connection between himself and what is written in the book; this should always be borne in mind. That is the reason Kabbalists wrote down what they experienced and achieved.
It is not in order to acquire a knowledge of how reality is built and functions, as in science. The intention of the Kabbalah texts is to create an understanding and assimilation of its spiritual truth. If a person approaches the texts in order to gain spirituality, the text becomes a source of light and corrects him.
If he approaches the texts in order to gain wisdom, it is for him mere wisdom. The measure of inner demand is what determines the measure of strength he gleans, and the pace of his correction. That means that if a person studies in the proper manner, he crosses the barrier between this world and the spiritual world. He enters a place of inner revealment and reaches the light. That is known as the beautiful sign. If he does not achieve this, it is a sign that he has been negligent in the quality or quantity of his efforts; he did not make a sufficient effort.
It is not a question of how much he studied, but a question of how occupied he was in his studies or if he lacked something. If he reaches this desire, he can attain spirituality. Only then will the heavens open for him to enter into another world, another reality and dimension. He reaches this stage by studying Kabbalah the right way. Embracing Kabbalah does not work by merely avoiding nice things so that ones desire will not be kindled.
Correction does not come from self-punishment; it is as a result of spiritual achievement. When a person achieves spirituality, the light appears and corrects him. This is the only way a person changes. Any other way is hypocritical. He is mistaken if he believes that by putting on a nice appearance he will achieve spirituality. Inner correction will not follow, since only the light can correct. The purpose of studying is to invite the light that corrects man. Therefore, a person should work on himself only for that purpose. If there is any pressure, or any obligatory rules or regulations, it is a sign that it is man-made and is not an action intended by the upper worlds.
In addition, inner harmony and tranquility are not prerequisites for attaining spirituality; they will appear as a result of the correction. But a person should not believe this can happen without an effort on his part. The Kabbalah way absolutely rejects any form of coercion. It grants a person an inkling of spirituality, bringing him to prefer it to materialism. Then, in relation to his spirituality, he clarifies his desire. Accordingly, he retreats from material things as his attraction to or necessity for them disappears. Studying Kabbalah incorrectly, even with the best intentions, can distance a person from spirituality.
This type of student will only fail. Therefore, Kabbalists prohibited the study of Kabbalah by people who had not been prepared for it, unless they did so under special circumstances. They treated their students cautiously to ensure they studied in the proper manner. They limited students by certain criteria. Baal Hasulam describes these reasons at the beginning of his Introduction to the Study of the Ten Sefirot. However, if we understand these restrictions as conditions for the proper comprehension of Kabbalah, we will see that they are intended as a way to prevent students from deviating from the correct way.
What has changed is that we now have more of a language, better conditions and a stronger determination to study Kabbalah. Because souls feel the need to study Kabbalah, Kabbalists such as Baal Hasulam have written commentaries that enable us to study free of errors. Everyone can now learn Kabbalah through his books. To study Kabbalah in the proper way, it is recommended that the student focus solely on the writings of the Ari and Ashalg Baal Hasulam and Rabash in their original versions. Among the languages of the study of spiritual worlds, between the Bible which includes the five books of Moses, the Writings and the Prophets and Kabbalah, the latter is the most useful and direct.
Those who learn it cannot err in their understanding.
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It does not use names from this world, but possesses a special dictionary directly indicating the spiritual tools for spiritual objects and forces, and the correlation between them. It is therefore the most useful language for the student to make inner progress and to correct himself. If we study the writings of Baal Hasulam, there is no danger of becoming confused. Several hundred years ago, it was impossible to find Kabbalah books or books on this subject.
Kabbalah was transmitted solely from one Kabbalist to another, never reaching the ordinary person. Today, the situation is reversed. There is a desire to circulate the material among all, and to call on everyone to participate in its study. When studying these books, the desire for spirituality grows, whereby the surrounding light around us, the real world hidden from us, starts to reflect on those people who wish to be closer to the special charm of spirituality, and they start to desire it even more.
Spirituality can be attained by studying the right book, i. The Bibles texts are Kabbalah texts. They are books Kabbalists wrote to one another to exchange ideas and to assist each other in learning. A person whose spiritual feelings have grown can see how these books assist him in continuing his growth and development.
It is like being with a tour guide in a foreign country. With the aid of the tour book, the traveler gets his bearings and better understands his new whereabouts. We need books that are suited to our souls, books by the Kabbalists of our generation or the previous one since different souls descend in each generation and require different teaching methods.
A student in search of a Kabbalah teacher must do so with care. There are so-called kabbalists who teach incorrectly, e. This is exactly the strict prohibition rendered by the Bible and Kabbalists in "Thou shall not make a sculpture or a picture. Why are there those who teach and interpret this way? First of all, they themselves do not comprehend. Moreover, if there were a direct connection between spiritual forces and our physical bodies, it would have been possible to teach people to succeed in life, and to cure the body by physical means under the guise of spirituality.
It is important to join the right study group in which to explore the writings of a real Kabbalist. This should be done under the guidance of a Kabbalist. The group gives strength. Everybody has at least a small desire for materialism, and an even smaller desire for spiritualism. The way to augment the will for spiritualism is through joint desire. Several students together stimulate ohr makif surrounding light. Although the physical body separates people, it does not affect spiritualism, since in spiritualism, the point in the heart is shared by all, resulting in a much greater result.
All of the Kabbalists studied in groups. Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochai held a group for students, and so did the Ari. A group is vital in order to progress. It is the primary tool of Kabbalah, and everyone is measured by his contribution to the group. It is essential to receive from a true Kabbalist who himself studied under the guidance of a Kabbalist.
A group does not negate a Kabbalist, it is impossible without a Kabbalist since it is he who directs the group. The texts and the Kabbalist help the student so that he does not deviate from the correct way of studying. He works on himself and on his inner being. No one knows the others place in the group, nor his level of spirituality. The books, the group and the Kabbalist simply help him to stay on course and increase his will for spirituality, instead of following other desires or worthless endeavors.
To help students avoid failure, a list of questions and answers and an index of words and expressions is provided. During study sessions, attention is drawn to spiritual truth, not to the depth or measure of comprehension. What is important is that the student is motivated to make spiritual progress, and not merely to advance intellectually. In the Introduction to Study of the Ten Sefirot, Baal Hasulam writes that whoever studies the right way reaches spirituality within three to five years.
It is true that people are attracted to the wisdom of Kabbalah in the hope of becoming more successful. We are all made of the desire to receive pleasure. It is our basic makeup, but with proper instruction some of us attain spirituality and eternity. Others, without the proper instruction, live under the illusion that they have achieved something spiritual.
In fact, they lose their chance of attaining spirituality in this lifetime. Man is incapable of making a move without there being some advantage in it for him. In order to act, he must first see how he may gain from it. This gain serves as the fuel that gets him moving. The fuel is either the immediate or future gain he envisages. If a person does not feel there is any profit or there will not be any in the future, he will immediately halt his actions.
That is because man cannot exist without feeling he will gain something. The Kabbalah teaches man how to receive. In order to attain spirituality a person must expand his will to receive. He must expand his will to absorb all worlds, including this one. This is the purpose for which he was created. It is not necessary to become a monk or ascetic, or steer away from life. On the contrary, Kabbalah obliges man to marry, bear children and work and live a full life. Nothing has to be given up; everything was created for a reason, and man need not withdraw from life.
When a person begins to study Kabbalah, he may have no spiritual feelings and therefore, he embarks on the learning process with the aid of his intellect.
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We are supposed to open our heart through our intellect. When the heart develops, we feel what is right and what is not, and are naturally drawn to the right decisions and actions. The Kabbalists begin by teaching spirituality in small doses to allow the students to expand their will to receive more light, more awareness, more spiritual feeling. Increased will brings with it a greater depth, understanding and attainment. A person then reaches the highest level of spirituality he can attain, down to the roots of his soul. None of us are new souls; we all have accumulated experiences from previous lives in other incarnations.
In each generation over the past six thousand years, souls have descended that were here on previous occasions. They are not new souls, but souls of a different kind that attained some form of spiritual development. Souls descend to earth in a special order: They enter the world cyclically.
The number of souls is not infinite; they return again and again, progressing toward correction. They are encased in new physical bodies which are more or less the same, but the types of souls that descend are different. This is what is popularly called reincarnation. Kabbalists use another term: the development of generations. This intertwining, the connection of the soul and body, assists in the correction of the soul.
Man is referred to as "soul," not "body. The body is useful only in that it serves as an encasement out of which the soul can work. Each generation physically resembles the previous one, but they are different from one another because each time, the souls descend with the added experience of their previous lives here. They arrive with renewed strength obtained while they were in heaven. Thus, each generation possesses different desires and goals from the previous one.
This leads to the specific development of each generation. Even a generation that does not reach the desire to know true reality or Godlike recognition accomplishes the task by the suffering it endures. That is its way of making progress toward true reality. All souls are derived from one, called the soul of the first man. This does not refer to Adam as we know him. It is a concept of spiritual, inner reality.
Parts of the soul of the first man descend into the world, taking the form of bodies, leading to a connection between body and soul. Reality is directed in such a manner that the souls descend and correct themselves. When they enter into body form they raise their level times above the level from which they began. The order in which souls descend into this reality of wearing a body goes from light to heavy. The soul of the first man comprises many parts and many desires, some light, others heavy, based on the amount of egoism and cruelty they possess.
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