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- Hurricanes, Typhoons, and Cyclones | Smithsonian Ocean
- These 5 reasons make Hurricane Florence extremely dangerous
- Floods, downed trees, and power outages greet the East Coast this morning.
In eighteen feet of water, she settled to the bottom. Six men climbed the foremast, while the captain climbed the after mast. It looked like all seven of the crew could cling to the mast and weather the night. But the weight of six men snapped the fore mast and five disappeared. Only one man made it to the after mast and climbed to safety.
As dawn broke the horizon, the Western States came into sight and turned towards the two men clinging to the mast protruding from the shallows. As the steamer approached, one man slipped from the mast and was never seen again. Only the Captain John Mattison was rescued.
Meanwhile, the Canadian steamer Merida disappeared that night. All 23 of her crew were found the next day floating in mid-lake, only identified by their life vests bearing the name Merida.
The lake freighter SS William B. Davock sank with all 33 hands in Lake Michigan south of Pentwater, Michigan. The SS Anna C. Minch foundered, broke in two and sank nearby with the loss of all 24 crew. A third ship, the SS Novadoc , wrecked on a reef in the same area. Two crew were lost and the rest were rescued two days later by the tug Three Brothers. Culbertson and two others were part of a rescue team searching for the missing boys on the Duluth Entry pier on Lake Superior. Meteorologists and Minnesota residents often refer to this day as "Black Sunday".
There were reports of heavy rain as far north as Duluth that day. The waves on Lake Superior in Duluth that night were reportedly over 20 feet 6. Once again it was a November storm that took the lives of men and their ship. It was November 9, that Edmund Fitzgerald was downbound to Detroit with a load of taconite. Arthur M. Anderson joined her on Lake Superior and was downbound for Gary, Indiana. As they were crossing Lake Superior the winter storm blew in. The next day, Monday, November 10, eastern Lake Superior was still experiencing winds of 50 knots That afternoon Anderson reported being hit by a knot gust By pm the Fitzgerald reported a minor list and top-side damage, including the loss of radar.
Fitzgerald was leading, but slowed to close the distance between ships so that it could be guided by Anderson , who still had radar. Just after seven that night, the last radio contact from the Fitzgerald said that they were still managing. Marie, Michigan, and Sault Ste.
Marie, Ontario. Although Fitzgerald had reported being in difficulty earlier, no distress signals were sent before she sank. Her crew of 29 all perished, and no bodies were recovered. Many theories, books, studies and expeditions have examined the cause of the sinking. Fitzgerald may have fallen victim to the high waves of the storm, suffered structural failure, been swamped with water entering through her cargo hatches or deck, experienced topside damage, or shoaled in a shallow part of Lake Superior.
The sinking of Edmund Fitzgerald is one of the best-known disasters in the history of Great Lakes shipping. The Lake Huron cyclone was a unique storm for the Great Lakes, acquiring some tropical characteristics at its peak intensity. The Storm caused damage throughout Northern Ontario, and into Quebec. On October 26, , the USA recorded its lowest pressure ever in a continental, non-hurricane system, though its pressure was consistent with a category three hurricane.
The powerful system was dubbed the "Chiclone" by the media as it hit the Chicago area particularly strongly, as well as Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. It was also meteorologically referred to as a bombogenesis due to the rapid drop of barometric pressure experienced. In Superior, Wisconsin, the storm managed a Near International Falls on the U. Another tornado is said to have struck Racine, Wisconsin, to the north, but has not yet been confirmed.
In Roscoe, IL, about miles to the west of Chicago and 15 minutes north of Rockford, a woman was killed after being crushed under a large tree that fell in her neighborhood of Chickory Ridge. The storm also produced some of the highest officially recorded waves by weather buoys stationed in Lakes Superior and Michigan. Specifically, on Wednesday, October 27, , buoy no.
The persistence and strength of the storm's westerly winds also piled the waters of Lake Michigan along the Michigan shoreline leading to declines in lake levels on the Illinois and Wisconsin side of the lake. The storm further whitened sections of the Upper Midwest with the region's first significant snow Tuesday night and Wednesday. The cold front that merged with Hurricane Sandy at the end of October fueled Sandy's transition into a powerful extratropical cyclone , which brought strong winds and high waves across the Great Lakes. The southern end of Lake Michigan experienced a lake level rise of 15 inches as the winds pushed water down the lake.
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On October 31, , there was a powerful storm which impacted the Great Lakes area during times when people are traditionally celebrating Halloween. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Mataafa Storm. Main article: Great Lakes Storm of Main article: Armistice Day Blizzard. Main article: Southern Minnesota tornado outbreak. Main article: SS Edmund Fitzgerald. Main article: Lake Huron cyclone. Main article: Heat wave of derecho series. Main article: October North American storm complex. Retrieved Daily Weather Map Series.
United States Weather Bureau. Schneider USCG History. Bowen, Dana Thomas Lore of the Lakes. Cleveland, OH: Freshwater Press. Havighurst, Walter, ed. The Great Lakes Reader. New York, NY: Macmillan. Parker, Jack Shipwrecks of Lake Huron The Great Sweetwater Sea. Varnum, Jacob Butler In Havighurst, Walter ed.
Hurricanes, Typhoons, and Cyclones | Smithsonian Ocean
Madeira barge of Edenborn. Two Island, nr Schroeder, Minnesota. Pie Island, Port Arthur, Ontario. William E. Corey stmr. Fourteen-Mile Point nr Ontonagon, Michigan. Point Isabelle east side Keweenaw Peninsula. Argus . James Carruthers . Hydrus . Leafield . John A. McGean . Plymouth . Charles S. Price . I haven't seen any news yet, so haven't been able to catch up on the damage from the morning's gale.
Many roofs flew from various locals, and San Francisco's high rises shook and swayed so much that in one instance a Christmas tree on the top floor fell over. I got this from my Dad, whom I just talked to on the phone. The storm had just started up there, so it looks like they'll be in for a fun night. Areas of highest damage include Redwood City and Pleasant Hill.
And my hand is tired been drawing all day. These are just a few: mph at Angel Island was another noteworthy peak wow!!! Two people died in the Bay Area from trees falling on their houses, one from a tree smashing their car. The SF Zoo's aviary also suffered losses. Other noteworthy weather events include 2. Up to We certainly made up for the lack of rain in October and November.
Sacramento lost many trees and had powerlines down all over, yet fortunately had no fatalities. We were slapped hard, but some of the most amazing stuff happened in Western Washington. The low trekked across the Olympic Peninsula from my understanding, and pressures dropped to Mb at Ellis -I'll have to check this Island!! Read: That's about what Astoria dropped to in the great Columbus Day storm of , and it happened far inland nontheless. I'd've never guessed that SEA would achieve so near a record established on the coast! What a storm. However, winds at SEA weren't so impressive, gusting to only 47 mph by the data I have.
But not achieving the mph recorded in the Columbus Day storm [confused with Newport! WA did not get the heavy rain of CA, though, in this storm. Today, Silven and I hiked up the meadow, and through the surrounding woods with the Zuidema's two golden retrievers Rascal and Charlie, who usually go on these walks with me. Their [the Zuidema's] power had been knocked out for 4 days from that storm, so I had expected to see much damage in the forest which I had hiked so much.
No such thing. I could hardly find felled branches, let alone fallen trees. My hiking grounds appeared to have been spared any major damage. Until I reached the saw mill.
These 5 reasons make Hurricane Florence extremely dangerous
One of the huge redwoods that was a member of the small grove which surrounded the saw mill had its tip broken many years ago. As a result, it for two growth tips and continued its extension into the sky. One tip, the one on the south side, was smaller than the north tip. The north tip grew to a vast size, one that would have made a healthy-sized tree in its own right. During the great windstorm of , the north tip, shearing down a plane of weakness undoubtedly as old as the tip itself, snapped clean off. The mill was gone, smashed out of existence, buried by a single blow.
This, the only tree to break in the area for quite some distance around. Near an orchard being reclaimed by the local wildlife, such as lizards and snakes, and trees of every description. A single redwood, breaking, burying the saw mill with its cascade of wood and green needles. Another victory for a little understood world. Sitting by a fire Duraflame after a strong storm blew through, dumping heavy rain and producing 20 to 40 mph wind gusts. At least two more storms are expected in the next few days, fronts swinging under a strong semipermanent low offshore to the NW.
The next one, due Tues night is expected to be very strong, and also the coldest storm of the season so far. We've already had the lowest barometer thusfar at Speaking of that storm, Silven and I drove out to the Bay Area Discovery Museum today, in the driving--at one time blinding on Highway north--rain and gusty wind. A number of large trees had been blown down by the Dec 12 storm there in a forest alongside a hill on the west part of the [BADM] grounds, and in the US Coast Guard area.
One spot, right at the base of the steep hill near the road, had a swath of, say, trees blown over--a near total flattening, and a rare sight, though I only saw the stumps, for the boles had been sawed away, and it looked like a few trees in the swath hadn't been uprooted, but there was no way, of course, to see if they had been topped by the gale. Near the swath, which left the remaining stand of cypress looking very toothpickish and bare with just green leaves and branches at their top light competition , a eucalyptus had also fallen and damaged the roof and wall of a USCG warehouse-like building.
Quite a sight. General Storm Data. Table 1 , below , lists the lowest barometric pressure readings at various locations in the December 12, windstorm, and the Columbus Day Storm and compares them, when available. The readings for the December storm are spectacularly low.
Note that Salem in dropped as low as did Tatoosh Island in ! The Columbus Day low-pressure center was beginning to fill significantly as it headed into the waters off of Washington. The lowest central pressure for the storm of was about It seems that the December low didn't undergo much filling before making landfall on the Olympic Peninsula. Maybe the difference in tracks allowed the low to maintain integrity as it raced inland.
After all, the Columbus Day Storm spent a large part of its existence close to shore, and the degrading effects of the vertical topography of the west. The December low, on its northeast track, didn't get very close to land until it had reached the latitude of Washington.
There's a nice trend of increasing difference in barometric minimums in a northward direction, from about 0. This reflects on the December storm's northeast tendency compared to the Columbus Day Storm's northward migration. Washington stations, in general were much closer to the center of action in The Columbus Day Storm's weakening offshore of Washington also contributed.
Source for data in table: National Climatic Data Center, unedited surface observation forms , unless otherwise noted. Table 1 , notes. From the National Data Buoy Center historical meteorological data. The figure is from Decker, Fred W. Table 2 , below , lists the lowest barometric pressures achieved during the December 12, storm for the 11 key Pacific Northwest locations used in general comparison between storms on this website, and the time of occurrence of the barometric minimums.
Floods, downed trees, and power outages greet the East Coast this morning.
Many of these values are all-time record low pressures, including the readings at Arcata, Bellingham, Eugene, Olympia, Salem and Seattle. The minimum of Portland's reading of At North Bend, the low pressure of At Tatoosh Island, the barometric pressure was at or below At Seattle, pressures held at or below The long period of low pressure, plus the close association in time of pressure minimums at Western Washington locations, mark a very deep, broad low, one that appears to have been elongated in an west-to-east manner.
The average minimum pressure of The December 12, cyclone produced the lowest pressure minimum average out of any cyclone to strike the Pacific Northwest in the to-present era. Table 2 , notes. Table 3 , below , is a list of the maximum hourly pressure gradients, and time of occurrence, for the December 12, windstorm. Some of these measures are spectacular. Table 3 , notes. Incidentially, this makes for more accurate comparisons between this storm and those before the opening year for the Quillayute station, which replaced the Tatoosh station for many decades.
The peak gradient listed, having occurred right at the first DLS observation of the 12th, could have been higher before Pressure Tendencies. Table 4 , below , lists the maximum hourly pressure falls and rises achieved during the December 12, storm for 11 Pacific Northwest stations. The peak The rest of the values, both in fall and rise, are quite strong, but other storms in history have exceeded these tendencies--in some cases by a large margin.
In terms of the station averages, the Columbus Day Storm was clearly ahead of the December 12, event on both counts with a The Some of the more spectacular pressure surges during the December 12, windstorm happened at buoys and automated stations along the Washington shoreline as the bent-back occlusion pushed inland behind the low center. At Destruction Island, starting at on December 12th, the pressure surged from At the time of the pressure jump, strong west-southwest winds poured in, sustaining at 62 mph and gusting to Welcome to the Information Age, era of twitchy machines.
Peak Wind and Gust. Table 5 , below , provides a list of peak gusts from the December windstorm, and the Columbus Day Storm of , so that the two storms can be compared. I also offer the difference in the peak gust speeds, and what that means in terms of wind force i. Wind force increases with the square of the velocity. In other words, when the velocity is doubled, the force is quadrupled. A 50 mph wind at sea level produces about 10 lbs per square foot of force. A mph gust hits with four times the force--about 40 lbs per square foot, not 20 as one might suppose by simply doubling the force in correspondance with the increase in velocity.
By examining the peak gusts in this light, we see that the Columbus Day Storm had significantly more punch than the December windstorm in many areas. Some of the figures below are tentative, and could be changed as I find more information on these two storms. Interestingly, for North Bend, OR, neither of these storms were the strongest in the past 40 years-- November saw a gust to 92 mph at this location!
Location Dec Peak mph Oct Peak mph Difference mph Force Difference number of times difference in strength of peak gust, with year of strongest storm listed. Table 5 , notes. Table 5 provided a straightforward comparison, however, study of the units-of-measure, and sensor location information, show that the data from the two storms were not collected in the same manner, rendering comparisons dubious.
Table 6 , below , shows winds at some of the above stations, and the associated instrument information, such as sensor height and location. Differences between and are significant. For example, in the October Local Climatological Data for the Eugene airport, the peak wind is listed under fastest 1-minute, and it is noted that, "a momentary gust of 86 MPH [was] observed. Observer error may explain some of the wide variation between peak 1-minute wind and peak instantaneous gust recorded at some sites in the Columbus Day Storm.
Note the 44 mph gusting to 58 at Sea-Tac and the 44 mph gusting to 96 at Astoria. It is possible that Astoria's actual peak 1-minute wind was higher than 44 mph--though the Columbus Day Storm was noted for extremely gusty winds, as corroborated by a 26 mph gusting to 81 reading at North Bend. If ASOS and AWOS stations provided a 1-minute average and instantaneous peak gust, these readings would tend to be higher than the new standard 2-minute average and 5-second peak.
This means that the reported speeds for the storm are probably low when compared to the figures for the Columbus Day Storm. In an example from my own records, the February 7, South Valley windstorm produced a peak instantaneous gust of 27 mph on a new, well-calibrated anemometer. I videotaped the event, and later captured the footage on computer so that wind velocity in 0. The data are shown in Figure 3 , below. From this data, a running 5-second average was calculated. At 21 mph, the 5-second peak was much lower than the instant gust.
Figure 3 clearly shows the "smoothing" effect that a 5-second running mean has on peak instant gusts. The average difference between the instant reading and the 5-second reading was 1. With an average velocity of Running averages for 30, 60 and seconds were also calculated. Wind speed lowered for each time interval, though the difference is less between the longer time-periods. The peak one and two minute averages were quite close: The peak instantaneous gust reported on December 12, for Portland, 74 mph, was taken on the old pre-ASOS wind gauge, and is therefore an instant though now unoffical reading [personal communication with Dave Willson, Lead Forecaster for NWS Portland, ].
Averaging the two percentages and taking off with this "peak gust adjustment," the 5-second peak at Eugene converts to an instantaneous gust of 59 mph. Salem changes to 71 mph, and Astoria to These are still significantly lower than the storm of '62, but not as much as the new National Weather Service wind measure format might suggest. Due to its high velocity, Portland's fastest mile of 88 mph in can be read as a second average essentially, wind moving at 88 mph will cover a mile in 41 seconds.
Portland's peak 2-minute wind of 51 mph for the December storm converts to a 59 mph second speed, still far off the mark--that's a difference in wind force of about 2. There are many objections to these adjustments, not the least of which is that the anemometer used for the conversions is of a different make than an ASOS wind sensor. And the sample resolution of 0.
The above paragraph mainly serves to show what potential differences might exist between the two formats. Unfortunately, changes in wind record format aren't the only complications introduced when comparing wind speeds between the two storms. Modern ASOS wind sensors tend to be higher than the foot standard of the pre-automated era.
Wind speeds will tend to be higher with the new system.