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  5. Siciliana - definition of Siciliana by The Free Dictionary

T he granita came out of ancient experiments. One of these concerned with preserving some snow, then sprinkled with syrup, under a paillasse. A tub was turned around inside a small well, arising ice from between, which was "kept" by means of coarse salt 2 parts of salt and 1 of ice. Once coined, the term was extended to all the different flavours of granita. N owadays modern equipments, like the so-called "mendecatrice", work automatically, yet the wise and magic hand of the "pasticciere" is always fundamental.

How many times do we happen to eat an over-frosted granita, because over-sugared or scarcely stirred once put in the counter? A s to the flavour, a lot of choice is available. Many Normans in Sicily also adopted some of the attributes of Muslim rulers and their Byzantine subjects in dress, language, literature, and even in the presence of palace eunuchs and, according to some accounts, a harem.

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Roger died in Roger II appointed the powerful Greek George of Antioch to be his "emir of emirs" and continued the syncretism of his father. During this period, the Kingdom of Sicily was prosperous and politically powerful, becoming one of the wealthiest states in all of Europe—even wealthier than the Kingdom of England.

This attracted scholars, scientists, poets, artists, and artisans of all kinds. Laws were issued in the language of the community to whom they were addressed in Norman Sicily, still with heavy Arab and Greek influence. Muslims, Jews, Byzantine Greeks , Lombards, and Normans worked together to form a society that historians have said created some of the most extraordinary buildings that the world has ever seen.

Significantly, immigrants from Northern Italy and Campania arrived during this period. Linguistically, the island shifted from being one third Greek- and two-thirds Arabic-speaking at the time of the Norman conquest to becoming fully Latinised. The last of the Hohenstaufens, Frederick II , the only son of Constance , was one of the greatest and most cultured men of the Middle Ages. The pope gladly accepted the role, as it allowed him to detach Sicily from the rest of The Holy Roman Empire , thus ending the spectre of the Papal States being surrounded.

Frederick was four when, at Palermo , he was crowned King of Sicily in Frederick received no systematic education and was allowed to run free in the streets of Palermo. There he picked up the many languages he heard spoken, such as Arabic and Greek, and learned some of the lore of the Jewish community. At age twelve, he dismissed Innocent's deputy regent and took over the government; at fifteen he married Constance of Aragon , and began his reclamation of the imperial crown. Subsequently, due to Muslim rebellions, Frederick II destroyed the remaining Muslim presence in Sicily, estimated at 60, persons, moving all to the city of Lucera in Apulia between and Strong opposition to French officialdom due to mistreatment and taxation saw the local peoples of Sicily rise up, leading in to an insurrection known as the War of the Sicilian Vespers , which eventually saw almost the entire French population on the island killed.

Peter gained control of Sicily from the French, who, however, retained control of the Kingdom of Naples. Just a few years before the latter earthquake, the island was struck by a ferocious plague. Ferdinand III the Bourbon was forced to retreat to Sicily which he was still in complete control of with the help of British naval protection. Following this, Sicily joined the Napoleonic Wars , and subsequently the British under Lord William Bentinck established a military and diplomatic presence on the island to protect against a French invasion.

Major revolutionary movements occurred in and against the Bourbon government with Sicily seeking independence; the second of which, the revolution resulted in a short period of independence for Sicily. However, in the Bourbons retook control of the island and dominated it until Garibaldi's march was completed with the Siege of Gaeta , where the final Bourbons were expelled and Garibaldi announced his dictatorship in the name of Victor Emmanuel II of Kingdom of Sardinia.

As a result of the Kingdom of Italy proclamation, Sicily became part of the kingdom on 17 March The Sicilian economy and the wider mezzogiorno economy remained relatively underdeveloped after the Italian unification , in spite of the strong investments made by the Kingdom of Italy in terms of modern infrastructure, and this caused an unprecedented wave of emigration. This period was also characterised by the first contact between the Sicilian mafia the crime syndicate also known as Cosa Nostra and the Italian government.

The Mafia's origins are still uncertain, but it is generally accepted that it emerged in the 18th century initially in the role of private enforcers hired to protect the property of landowners and merchants from the groups of bandits briganti who frequently pillaged the countryside and towns. The battle against the Mafia made by the Kingdom of Italy was controversial and ambiguous. The Carabinieri the military police of Italy and sometimes the Italian army were often involved in terrible fights against the mafia members, but their efforts were frequently useless because of the secret co-operation between mafia and local government and also because of the weakness of the Italian judicial system.

In the s, the Fascist regime began a stronger military action against the Mafia, which was led by prefect Cesare Mori who was known as the "Iron Prefect" because of his iron-fisted campaigns. This was the first time in which an operation against the Sicilian mafia ended with considerable success. In preparation for the invasion, the Allies revitalized the Mafia to aid them. The invasion of Sicily contributed to the 25 July crisis ; in general, the Allied victors were warmly embraced by Sicily. Italy became a Republic in and, as part of the Constitution of Italy , Sicily was one of the five regions given special status as an autonomous region.

During this period, the economic and social condition of the island was generally improved thanks to important investments on infrastructures such as motorways and airports , and thanks to the creation of important industrial and commercial areas. Sicily is a melting pot of a variety of different cultures and ethnicities, including the original Italic people , the Phoenicians , Carthaginians , Greeks , Romans , Byzantines , Arabs , Normans , Swabians , Aragonese , Lombards , Spaniards , French, and Albanians , each contributing to the island's culture and genetic makeup.

About five million people live in Sicily, making it the fourth most populated region in Italy. In the first century after the Italian unification , Sicily had one of the most negative net migration rates among the regions of Italy because of the emigration of millions of people to other European countries, North America, South America and Australia.

Like the South of Italy and Sardinia, immigration to the island is very low compared to other regions of Italy because workers tend to head to Northern Italy instead, due to better employment and industrial opportunities. Since the Italian unification, Sicily, along with the entire south of the Italian peninsula has been strongly marked by coerced emigration , partly induced by a planned de-industrialization of the south in order to favour the northern regions. Furthermore, an embargo imposed on goods coming from South Italian manufacturers, that effectively barred them from exporting to the north and abroad, were also key factors that led to a further impoverishment of the entire region.

South Italian and Sicilian emigration started shortly after the Unification of Italy, and has not stopped ever since. By the beginning of the s, less than 40 years after the Unification, what was formelly known as the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, one of Europe's most industrialised countries, became one of the poorest regions in Europe.

The afore mentioned factors, along with a failed land reform, resulted in a never-before-seen wave of Sicilians emigrating, first to the United States between the s and the s, later to Northern Italy, and from the s onwards also to Belgium , France , Germany , Switzerland , as well as Australia and South America. Today, Sicily is the Italian region with the highest number of expatriates : as of , , Sicilians, The following table shows the ten largest cities of Sicily: [90].

The politics of Sicily takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democracy , whereby the President of Regional Government is the head of government , and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the Regional Government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Sicilian Regional Assembly.

Stidda Mafia Siciliana La quinta mafia Italian Mafia

The capital of Sicily is Palermo. Traditionally, Sicily gives centre-right results during election. Its best electoral result was in the general election , when MIS obtained 0. However, the movement lost all its seats following the general election and the regional election. Even though it has never been formally disbanded, today the movement is no longer part of the politics of Sicily.

The Communists and their successors the Democratic Party of the Left , the Democrats of the Left and the present-day Democratic Party had never won in the region until Sicily is now governed by a centre-right coalition. Nello Musumeci is the current President since Administratively, Sicily is divided into nine provinces, each with a capital city of the same name as the province. A series of reforms and investments on agriculture such as the introduction of modern irrigation systems have made this important industry competitive.

Today Sicily is investing a large amount of money on structures of the hospitality industry , in order to make tourism more competitive. Sicily has long been noted for its fertile soil due to volcanic eruptions. The local agriculture is also helped by the pleasant climate of the island. Cattle and sheep are raised. Sicily is the third largest wine producer in Italy the world's largest wine producer after Veneto and Emilia Romagna. In recent decades the wine industry has improved, new winemakers are experimenting with less-known native varietals, and Sicilian wines have become better known.

Sicilian History

Furthermore, in Sicily high quality wines are also produced using non-native varietals like Syrah , Chardonnay and Merlot. Sicily is also known for its liqueurs, such as the Amaro Averna produced in Caltanissetta and the local limoncello. Fishing is another fundamental resource for Sicily.

There are important tuna , sardine , swordfish and European anchovy fisheries. Mazara del Vallo is the largest fishing centre in Sicily and one of the most important in Italy. Improvements in Sicily's road system have helped to promote industrial development. The region has three important industrial districts :. In Palermo there are important shipyards such as Fincantieri , mechanical factories of famous Italian companies as Ansaldo Breda , publishing and textile industries. A table showing Sicily's different GDP nominal and per capita growth between and [] []. After the table which shows Sicily's GDP growth, [] this table shows the sectors of the Sicilian economy in The unemployment rate stood at Highways have been built and expanded in the last four decades.

The most prominent Sicilian roads are the motorways known as autostrade in the north of the island. Much of the motorway network is elevated on pillars due to the island's mountainous terrain. The first railway in Sicily was opened in Palermo-Bagheria and today all of the Sicilian provinces are served by a network of railway services, linking to most major cities and towns; this service is operated by Trenitalia. Of the narrow-gauge railways the Ferrovia Circumetnea is the only one that still operates, going round Mount Etna.

From the major cities of Sicily, there are services to Naples , Rome and Milan ; this is achieved by the trains being loaded onto ferries which cross the Strait. In Catania there is an underground railway service metropolitana di Catania ; in Palermo the national railway operator Trenitalia operates a commuter rail Palermo metropolitan railway service , the Sicilian Capital is also served by 4 AMAT Comunal Public Transport Operator tramlines; Messina is served by a tramline.

Mainland Sicily has several airports which serve numerous Italian and European destinations and some extra-European. By sea, Sicily is served by several ferry routes and cargo ports, and in all major cities, cruise ships dock on a regular basis.

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Plans for a bridge linking Sicily to the mainland have been discussed since Throughout the last decade, plans were developed for a road and rail link to the mainland via what would be the world's longest suspension bridge , the Strait of Messina Bridge. Planning for the project has experienced several false starts over the past few years. Sicily's sunny, dry climate, scenery, cuisine, history and architecture attract many tourists from mainland Italy and abroad.

The tourist season peaks in the summer months, although people visit the island all year round. The last features some of the best-preserved temples of the ancient Greek period. Many Mediterranean cruise ships stop in Sicily, and many wine tourists also visit the island.

This increased the attraction of Sicily as a tourist destination. By the order of inscription:. Because many different cultures settled, dominated or invaded the island, Sicily has a huge variety of archaeological sites. Also, some of the most notable and best preserved temples and other structures of the Greek world are located in Sicily. Here is a short list of the major archaeological sites:. The excavation and restoration of one of Sicily's best known archaeological sites, the Valley of the Temples in Agrigento, was at the direction of the archaeologist Domenico Antonio Lo Faso Pietrasanta , Fifth Duke of Serradifalco , known in archaeological circles simply as "Serradifalco".

He also oversaw the restoration of ancient sites at Segesta , Selinunte , Siracusa and Taormina. The Coastal towers in Sicily Torri costiere della Sicilia are old watchtowers along the coast. In Sicily, the first coastal towers date back to and of the Aragonese monarchy. From the threat came from the south, from North Africa to Maghreb , mainly to Barbary pirates and corsairs of Barbary Coast. In , the Turks settled in Algiers , and from , the corsair Hayreddin Barbarossa under the command of Ottoman Empire , operated from that harbour.

Most existing towers were built on architectural designs of the Florentine architect Camillo Camilliani from [] to , and involved the coastal periple of Sicily. The typology changed completely in ', because of the new higher fire volumes of cannon vessels, the towers were built on the type of Martello towers that the British built in the UK and elsewhere in the British Empire. In the U. Marines and Navy, in the Battle of Derne , near Tripoli.

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Ligny Tower - Trapani. Torre Manfria Gela. Torre Cabrera Pozzallo Pozzallo. Vignazza Tower Giardini Naxos. To have seen Italy without having seen Sicily is to not have seen Italy at all, for Sicily is the clue to everything. Sicily has long been associated with the arts ; many poets, writers, philosophers , intellectuals, architects and painters have roots on the island. The history of prestige in this field can be traced back to Greek philosopher Archimedes , a Syracuse native who has gone on to become renowned as one of the greatest mathematicians of all time.

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Terracotta ceramics from the island are well known, the art of ceramics on Sicily goes back to the original ancient peoples named the Sicanians , it was then perfected during the period of Greek colonisation and is still prominent and distinct to this day. Famous painters include Renaissance artist Antonello da Messina , Bruno Caruso , Renato Guttuso and Greek born Giorgio de Chirico who is commonly dubbed the "father of Surrealist art " and founder of the metaphysical art movement. The Sicilian Baroque has a unique architectural identity.

Noto , Caltagirone , Catania , Ragusa , Modica , Scicli and particularly Acireale contain some of Italy's best examples of Baroque architecture , carved in the local red sandstone. Noto provides one of the best examples of the Baroque architecture brought to Sicily. The Baroque style in Sicily was largely confined to buildings erected by the church, and palazzi built as private residences for the Sicilian aristocracy. However, even at this early stage, provincial architects had begun to incorporate certain vernacular features of Sicily's older architecture.

By the middle of the 18th century, when Sicily's Baroque architecture was noticeably different from that of the mainland, it typically included at least two or three of the following features, coupled with a unique freedom of design that is more difficult to characterise in words. Palermo hosts the Teatro Massimo which is the largest opera house in Italy and the third largest in all of Europe. The golden age of Sicilian poetry began in the early 13th century with the Sicilian School of Giacomo da Lentini , which was highly influential on Italian literature.

In terms of academic reflection, the historical and aesthetic richness as well as the multi-layered heterogeneity of Sicilian literature and culture have been first grasped methodologically and coined with the term of transculturality by German scholar of Italian studies Dagmar Reichardt who, after having published an extensive study on the literary work of Giuseppe Bonaviri , [] was awarded the International Premio Flaiano "Italianistica" for a trilingual English, Italian, German collection about the European liminality of Sicily, Sicilian literature and Sicilian Studies.

Today in Sicily most people are bilingual and speak both Italian and Sicilian , a distinct and historical Romance language.

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However the use of Sicilian is limited to informal contexts mostly in family and in a majority of cases it is replaced by the so-called regional Italian of Sicily , an Italian dialect that is a kind of mix between Italian and Sicilian. Sicilian was an early influence in the development of the first Italian standard, although its use remained confined to an intellectual elite.

This was a literary language in Sicily created under the auspices of Frederick II and his court of notaries, or Magna Curia , which, headed by Giacomo da Lentini , also gave birth to the Sicilian School , widely inspired by troubadour literature. Its linguistic and poetic heritage was later assimilated into the Florentine by Dante Alighieri , the father of modern Italian who, in his De vulgari eloquentia , claims that "In effect this vernacular seems to deserve a higher praise than the others, since all the poetry written by Italians can be called Sicilian".

Catania has one of the four laboratories of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare National Institute for Nuclear Physics in which there is a cyclotron that uses protons both for nuclear physics experiments and for particle therapy to treat cancer proton therapy. In the Observatory of Palermo the astronomer Giuseppe Piazzi discovered the first and the largest asteroid to be identified Ceres today considered a dwarf planet on 1 January ; [] Catania has two observatories, one of which is situated on Mount Etna at 1, metres 5, feet.

Syracuse is also an experimental centre for the solar technologies through the creation of the project Archimede solar power plant that is the first concentrated solar power plant to use molten salt for heat transfer and storage which is integrated with a combined-cycle gas facility.

All the plant is owned and operated by Enel. It was founded by the physicist Antonino Zichichi in honour of another scientist of the island, Ettore Majorana known for the Majorana equation and Majorana fermions. As in most Italian regions, Christian Roman Catholicism is the most predominant religious denomination in Sicily, and the church still plays an important role in the lives of most people.

Before the invasion of the Normans, Sicily was predominantly Eastern Orthodox , of which few adherents still remain today. There is also a notable small minority of Eastern-rite Byzantine Catholics which has a mixed congregation of ethnic Albanians ; it is operated by the Italo-Albanian Catholic Church. Most people still attend church weekly or at least for religious festivals, and many people get married in churches.

There was a wide presence of Jews in Sicily for at least 1, years and possibly for more than 2, years. Some scholars believe that the Sicilian Jewry are partial ancestors of the Ashkenazi Jews. Islam was present during the Emirate of Sicily , although Muslims were also expelled. Today, mostly due to immigration to the island, there are also several religious minorities, such as Jehovah's Witnesses, Islam, Judaism, and Sikhism. There are also a fair number of Evangelical Church members and practitioners who live on the island. The island has a long history of producing a variety of noted cuisines and wines, to the extent that Sicily is sometimes nicknamed God's Kitchen because of this.

Cassata is typical of Palermo although available everywhere in Sicily, as is Granita, a Catania speciality. The ingredients are typically rich in taste while remaining affordable to the general public. The most well-known part of Sicilian cuisine is the rich sweet dishes including ice creams and pastries. Cannoli singular: cannolo , a tube-shaped shell of fried pastry dough filled with a sweet filling usually containing ricotta cheese , is strongly associated with Sicily worldwide.

Siciliana - definition of Siciliana by The Free Dictionary

Like the cuisine of the rest of southern Italy, pasta plays an important part in Sicilian cuisine, as does rice; for example with arancine. Parsley is used abundantly in many dishes. Although Sicilian cuisine is commonly associated with sea food, meat dishes, including goose , lamb , goat, rabbit, and turkey , are also found in Sicily. It was the Normans and Swabians who first introduced a fondness for meat dishes to the island. The most popular sport in Sicily is football , which came to the fore in the late 19th century under the influence of the English.

Some of the oldest football clubs in Italy are from Sicily: the three most successful are Palermo , Catania , and Messina , which have played 29, 17 and 5 seasons in the Serie A respectively. No club from Sicily has ever won Serie A, but football is still deeply embedded in local culture and all over Sicily most towns have a representative team. The idea of commemorating the dead in memory of inspiration born of a Byzantine rite celebrated fact that all the dead, the Saturday before the Sunday Sexagesima - so called before the liturgical reform of the Second Vatican Council - ie the Sunday before two weeks of the beginning of Lent, a period roughly between the end of January and the month of February.

In the Latin Church the rite is traced back to the Benedictine abbot of Cluny sant'Odilone in : the Cluniac reform established fact that the bells of the abbey were done playing with tolling funeral after the vespers of November 1st to celebrate the dead, and the day after the Eucharist was offered "pro omnium defunctorum rest" , after which the ceremony was extended to the whole Catholic Church. Officially, the festival, originally called Anniversarium Omnium Animarum , appears for the first time in the ' Ordo Romanus of the fourteenth century.

Arts Day of the Dead, of Bouguereau , At the Memorial are dedicated several works, among which the most famous is Le jour des morts Day of the Dead of William-Adolphe Bouguereau, oil on canvas created in and now on display at the Muse des Beaux-Arts of Bordeaux, in France. Traditions In the countries of Central America. In the countries of Central America is customary, in addition to visiting the cemeteries, decorate the graves with flowers, as well as deposit on the same toys in the case in which the deceased is a child or alcohol.

In Mexico , in some homes, it is still customary to prepare the altar of the dead : this product is enriched with pictures of the deceased, a cross, a bow and incense. This is because the popular belief thinks that, during this day, the spirit of the dead come to find their loved ones. This altar serve to facilitate this return. In the Philippines In this Asian country it is customary to decorate the graves of their loved ones, as well as offer prayers for the dead.

In Hungary In Hungary orphans are invited to spend the day with family. At the end we give away their toys and sweets. In Italy It is customary on the day dedicated to the memory of the dead visit the cemeteries and bring in local gift flowers on the graves of loved ones. In many places, Italian is the widespread custom of preparing some sweets, called it sweet of the dead, to celebrate the day.

In Sicily during the night of All Saints' belief has it that the deceased family leave gifts for the children along with the Martorana fruit and other sweets. In the area of Monte Argentario was a tradition of sewing large pockets on the front of the clothing of orphans, so that everyone could put something on offer, food or money. There was also the custom of putting small shoes on the graves of deceased infants because it was believed that on the night of November 2 their souls those angels to come back among the living.

In the communities of ' Southern Italy of the ' Eparchy of Lungro and of ' Eparchy of Piana degli Albanesi we commemorate the dead according to the tradition of Eastern rite greek-byzantine. The celebrations are carried out in the weeks preceding Lent. According to the traditional culture of many Italian cities, the night of the Day of the Dead souls of the dead would come back from the dead by making processions through the streets of the village. In some areas, according to what happens in the English-speaking world on the occasion of the festival of Halloween , it was tradition to dig and then carve pumpkins and put a candle inside to use as lanterns.

Back to main list. Notes The following text comes from the Italian Wikipedia Google machine translation : "General: It is a tradition in Europe and especially in Italy prepare special sweets in the days near the November 2, which is often brought in the name of this event or the shape and texture to a bone. Fave dei morti Beans of the dead, almond cookies, shaped like beans, flavored ground almonds, cinnamon and lemon juice. Folk Sayings on Eating and Drinking. Folk Sayings on Fortune and Fate. Folk Sayings on Good and Evil. X Italian Egg and Cheese Dishes.

X Italian Rice and Polenta Dishes. X Italian Vegetable and Side Dishes.