- The Humanist Philosophy in Perspective
- Humanism and Theology
- Humanism - By Branch / Doctrine - The Basics of Philosophy
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It goes without saying that this is not the first time in my life that I turned to the great Christian pupil of Aristotle, and I confess to have a profound admiration for the supreme master of medieval Christian thought. I shall try to make my contribution to your annual commemoration of him by discussing not some technical details of St.
The Humanist Philosophy in Perspective
Thomas' and Aristotle's philosophy but the more general historical problem of the theocentric view of the world represented by St. Thomas and its relationship to the Greek. An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while. Humanism and Theology By Werner Jaeger.
Humanism and Theology
Even so, evolutionists are determined that creation not be given equal hearing with evolution in public schools. Creationists have debated evolutionists in public forums, and have generally gained more favorable reception from their audiences than have evolutionists. The result, however, is that evolutionists are now hesitating to debate creationists publicly. In judicial arenas, however, creationists are generally defeated, not by the evidence, but seemingly by prejudices of the judiciary.
The educational establishment does everything in its legal power to keep creationists from presenting scientific data for its view of origins. Court cases in Arkansas and Louisiana have demonstrated that the teaching of creation is not acceptable in public schools. Creationists, generally, see the battle to get creation taught alongside evolution as the major battle for Christian faith in public schools.
Nor is it to legalize prayers or bible readings in schools.
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The real issue is: Which worldview — creation or evolution — will serve as the philosophical foundation for public education? Creationists have long since lost the major battle for Christian faith in public schools. And most creationists do not even know what it was, when it happened, nor how. It happened when the proponents of evolution devised and superimposed their own worldview upon American public education. It happened when John Dewey, G. Thorndike, John B.
Watson and other educational philosophers and psychologists of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries exchanged the Bible for the Darwinian theory of evolution as the foundation of all knowledge. The theory of evolution also became the philosophy under girding instructional methods and educational purposes. This happened without theists, generally, even being aware that there was a battle to be fought.
Creationists lost! The study of origins is important, but not especially because it provides the framework for studies in biological sciences. It also determines educational methods and purposes. In public education, the theory of evolution is now considered to be, at least in theory, the key to all knowledge. To believe in the creation of our natural universe requires belief in a supernatural being who has power and purposes greater than what is demonstrated by the natural universe.
To believe in evolution requires belief in a self-existing universe.
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It requires belief that this natural universe is all that exists, that it evolves by chance and that all things are only physical. For evolutionists, nothing is spiritual or eternal. The physical sciences — biology, chemistry, geology, astronomy, etc. Did God create the heavens and the earth and all things in them?
Psalm ; Romans ; 1 Corinthians ; Hebrews ; Did creation occur in a seven-day week as declared by scripture? Genesis ; Exodus Or has a self-existing universe evolved over billions of years to become what it now is? Does nature operate only by chance? The social sciences — psychology, sociology, politics, etc. Modern historians are generally committed to doctrinaire evolutionary concepts in the interpretation of both ancient and modern history.
They see no place for God to work in the affairs of mankind in either biblical or contemporary history. Therefore, for them, biblical history must be considered as saga, legend, or myth. In the teaching of ethical and moral values — truth, honesty, decency, etc. If all things evolve by chance, then there are no absolutes, all things must be relative. Right and wrong are always flexible according to current social standards. One can therefore act in whatever manner may be desired by himself or his society.
On the other hand, if God created mankind and holds mankind accountable to a consistent, universal standard, then there are absolutes. The major philosophies — whether political, psychological, sociological, etc. These are all taught in public schools.
All modern public education is anti-biblical and anti-theistic to the extent that all subjects taught in public schools presuppose that all things evolved. Even in such subjects as speech, math, meteorology, etc. Evolutionary presuppositions in modern education require an automatic rejection of a supernatural God who created and sustains all things. It requires rejection of supernatural revelation about God and all other aspects of reality. And it requires rejection of the spiritual nature of man.
In public education, the theory of evolution is now considered to be, at least in theory, the key to all instructional methods. The theory of evolution is not only the philosophical foundation for all subject content taught in public schools, it is also the psychological basis, at least in theory, for all instructional methods now used in public schools. Psychology is the study of the human mind as demonstrated by human behavior. The workings of the mind are important for both teaching and learning. Educators want to know how the mind works in order that teachers may guide students effectively in the learning process.
Conclusions derived from studying the mind are largely dependent upon presuppositions or assumptions brought to the study of the mind. Creationists generally believe that the mind of mankind is distinct from the brain and that it is somehow related to the spiritual nature of humanity. In order for that to be, his memory, a faculty of the mind, had to have existence beyond the life of the human body. Thus, biblically speaking, the human mind is something more than physical.
Humanism - By Branch / Doctrine - The Basics of Philosophy
Evolutionists, on the other hand, believe that human beings are only physical, and that human minds are only physical. The mind is not distinct from the brain. Mind and brain are but one and the same. For evolutionists, the mind is not a special faculty capable of receiving ideas. Rather it is merely an ability that has evolved, like any other ability, to help a human being to adapt to his or her environment. These differing presuppositions are directly related to instructional methods.
Because creationists and evolutionists differ in their presuppositions regarding human nature and the nature of the human mind, they logically differ in their educational methodologies. Although public schools in America were once mostly theistic, with the coming of evolution and with its adaptation as the root source of educational philosophy and psychology, public schools became humanistic.
Modern public education, often referred to as progressive education, is but the application of ideas derived from evolution as the basis for instructional methods. Progressive education grew out of the new experimental psychology based on the belief that man is an animal, a product of evolution with common ancestry with the ape, and could therefore be studied like any other animal. Haeckel was also responsible for the idea that during embryological development higher organisms like man relived their evolutionary history — that ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny. That hypothesis has since been proven false, but it has become the basis of the way reading is taught in most American schools.
The look-say method of teaching reading was promoted by the progressives on the ground that children should go through the different stages that the human race went through in learning to read: pictography, ideographs, and finally the alphabet. All educational psychology and most other psychology also is based on the theory of evolution. Watson, derived from Charles Darwin the stimulus-response techniques now used in teaching. His instincts, that is his inborn tendencies to feel and act in certain ways, show though out marks of kinship with the lower animals, especially with our nearest relatives physically, the monkeys.
His sense-powers show no new creation. His intellect we have seen to be a simple though extended variation from the general animal sort. This again is presaged by the similar variation in the case of the monkeys. Amongst the minds of animals that of man leads, not as a demigod from another planet, but as a king from the same race. In public education, the theory of evolution is now considered to be, at least in theory, the key to all educational purposes.
Because creationists believe that mankind is both physical and spiritual, creationists are concerned with truth, and with the acquisition and use of knowledge for both time and eternity. Creationists are interested in children knowing all things needful to become independent of their parents, to lead faithful Christian lives, and to build their own Christian homes. Creationists are interested in educating for both time and eternity. For creationists, learning relies primarily on use of cognitive skills.
On the other hand, because evolutionists believe that mankind is only physical, evolutionists are not so much concerned about imparting knowledge to children as they are teaching children how to solve social problems, to adapt to their physical and social environments. Evolutionists are interested in teaching children things that relate only to time — not to eternity — things like self-realization, social adjustment, and financial success.
The stimulus response techniques now used in teaching is indicative of changes in the purposes of education.
Americans have traditionally believed that schools were to foster the intellectual development of children by teaching them basic skills. They were to cultivate their minds through study of systematic knowledge produced through the centuries, and to instill an understanding of their heritage and culture.
However, modern educational philosophy intents for schools to modify behavior and to inculcate evolutionary values and vacillating emotional adjustments. Some educational philosophers have gone so far as to redefine education as therapy. Every teacher must be regarded as a facilitator or psycho-therapist. And every child in the classroom must be regarded as a patient.
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In public education, the theory of evolution is increasingly becoming, in actual practice, the key to all knowledge, all instructional methods, and all educational purposes. And they are right. The fact is that the theory of evolution is, by design, worked into textbooks and other curriculum guides.
When schoolteachers follow those guides, and they must at least to some degree, then they, however unconscious of it they may be, are implementing the intentions of educational philosophers and psychologists. The change has come gradually, but it is now accelerating faster because evolutionists now have a stronger hold on the educational system. Conclusion of Major Premise. The current creation-evolution controversy is a surprise to evolutionists and to the educational establishment.
The unforeseen possibility that creation might now be allowed equal hearing with evolution, even if only in biology classes, is a genuine threat to them. Should creationists win adherents, if only in biology classrooms, then it would not be long before creation would become a threat to evolutionism in public schools, not only as the way all things originated, but more significantly, as the philosophical foundation for all subject content, teaching methods and educational purposes.
Evolutionists, and the educational establishment, are not about to risk that possibility. If, in the teaching of origins in biology classes, equal treatment were to be given to alternative perspectives, i. However, this would not be equal treatment, not even in biology, because evolutionism would still be the philosophical foundation for other aspects of biology curriculum. In religious humanism, the idea is basically that God exists, but he wants us to act like humanists — to search for truth on our own, to exercise free will , and to strive to make the world a better place.
For religious humanism, God is very real, but tends to stay in the background of things rather than interfering or demanding constant praise. Anne Frank was a young Jewish girl who lived in Amsterdam during the Nazi occupation. She and her family suffered terribly under Nazi rule, and they ultimately died in a concentration camp.
Since Frank was Jewish and believed in God, her views would be described as religious humanism. As a result, there is no more war or conflict. But there is also no freedom — every choice is made by society, not by the individual. In the book, the main character gradually comes to the decision that this is wrong. Humanism has a deep influence on modern culture. Some religious people criticize secular humanism because they see it as taking the place of God. From this point of view, only God has natural value, and morality can only come from loving God and obeying the scriptures.
Of course, religious humanists would object to this! They would say that loving God and obeying the scriptures is the same as respecting human rights and valuing individual lives. Note: these are steps for using humanism in creative writing. Humanism can also be used in essays see next section , but there are no special steps or rules for this, other than the steps for writing any other essay.
This, of course, is a crucial step in writing any story! Make sure that the hopeful ending is the result of human effort and freedom, and that you paint a positive picture of human nature. Humanism can also make sense in formal essays, especially on ethics or philosophy. As an exercise, you might even consider switching your view! Whatever you believe about humanism, write an argument for the opposite position so that you can strengthen your skills of critical thinking and analytic writing.
The Little Prince is a secular-humanist story in the way it presents people as inherently good, but flawed. In this story, human beings are born noble, and children keep their innocence and moral virtue, but sometimes adults lose sight of it. Solzhenitsyn was a Christian Humanist from Soviet Russia. After fighting in the Red Army in World War II, he became disillusioned with Communist rule and wrote several novels and essays about Soviet oppression and mistreatment.