- IW:LEARN | Projects - SIP-Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project II
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There were, however, problems in its implementation with some ratings being unsatisfactory or only marginally satisfactory. Project activities were insufficiently prioritized, and complementarities were not exploited. This essentially reflected the lack of a log-frame linked to measurable outcomes and coordinated across countries and sectors through a sound institutional structure. The key issues and related mitigation actions were subsequently prioritized in the regional Strategic Action Program SAP.
The top five prioritized key transboundary issues from the SAP process are: i Land, wetland, and forest degradation; ii Weak governance, policy, and institutional framework; iii Declining fish stocks, and loss of habitats and biodiversity; iv Increasing pollution and eutrophication; and v Unsustainable water resources management, declining water levels, and climate change. The proposed LVEMP II will focus on priority transboundary environmental issues, while building on the successes and addressing key gaps of the first phase.
The RTDA examined the transboundary environmental problems that threaten the Lake Victoria ecosystem, and characterized them as falling within six thematic areas: i land use and degradation; ii water quality and pollution; iii water quantity and declining water balance; iv fisheries decline and threats to biodiversity; v governance of environmental resources; and vi socio-economic and cross-cutting issues.
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The challenges facing the lake and its resources were never thought to be feasibly solved through a project, thus the first phase was always envisioned as the beginning of a long term program addressing critical issues through a strategic framework. It seeks to support crucial interventions of this program, particularly in going beyond research, knowledge and capacity building activities of the first phase, to integrated lake management and impact oriented activities.
The project objective above is drawn from the Lake Victoria Vision , a harmonized regional long-term vision that was based on national visioning processes in the three riparian countries based on participatory consultations involving over 11, people, representing communities and other stakeholders, and adopted by the East African Community EAC. One regional and three national task forces guided the processes. GEF support will focus on strengthening regional capacity in LVBC for data management and sharing, as well as contribute to monitoring Lake Basin ecosystems health.
Strengthening governance of transboundary resources USD 25 million : including strengthening of key policy, legal, and institutional frameworks; establishing regional and national regulatory standards and enforcement mechanism; harmonizing NRM regulatory frameworks regionally; piloting appropriate economic incentive mechanisms; harmonizing the planning and coordination of NRM regimes, capacity building, spatial planning; and developing an integrated Water Resources Management plan.
GEF financing will support actions for improved transboundary resource management, as well as the development of sustainable resource use and management plans for the key resources. This would include integrated water and fisheries management plans, and basin-wide watershed management strategy. Further, it will contribute to mainstreaming SLM initiatives into national policies and programs. The fish levy trust, once operationalized, will provide sustained financing for governance of natural resources. The basin area has insufficient water for household use and for grazing despite the abundant water sources found in the area.
Wetlands have been exploited and degraded, and there are cross border migrations of pastoralists which cause conflicts. Despite the challenges, Kagera basin holds significant opportunities for win-win development that could enhance food production, energy availability, transportation, industrial development, environmental conservation and other related sustainable development activities. Cooperative water resources management offers unique opportunities as catalysts for greater regional integration both social-economic and political with potential benefits exceeding those derived from the river itself.
This requires a basin wide approach to management through a framework for sustainable trans-boundary development and management of the water resources. Kagera Project is also preparing a small number of such development investment proposals for subsequent funding within a consistent development strategy, and enhances the abilities of managers and communities in the Basin to engage in trans-boundary development activities.
Establishment of a sustainable cooperative framework foe a joint management of shared water ressouces in Kagera Basin. Completed the assessment and design of Hydrometric Network and procurement of hydrometric equipment ongoing.
IW:LEARN | Projects - SIP-Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project II
Conducted Capacity Building and Community awareness raising. Mobilised additional country financial support of the small scale projects. Completed the following: Construction of Phase 1 of Katuna water serving over 7, people in the area; Construction of 15 rain water harvesting tanks in Nyagatare, Rwanda to 15 schools; Construction of Kayanga water supply system to 10, people in Kayanga town, Karagwe district in Tanzania. Construction of Butihinda Town in Rwanda water supply is ongoing.
Activities in Kirehe and Gicumbi Districts in Rwanda are still ongoing. The Mara Transboundary IWRM project , Kenya-Tanzania is one of the three River Basin Management pre-investment projects implemented under NELSAP and seeks to establish a sustainable framework for the joint management and development of the shared water resources of the Mara River Basin, prepare investment strategy based on the resources endowments in the basins, and undertake feasibility studies and resource mobilization for investment projects.
Project offices are located in Musoma, Tanzania. Phase I of the project was preparatory in nature and was financed through Sweden, and Norway grants. To date, studies for the two major components i policy and institutional framework for the transboundary management of the shared water resources and ii a Mara Investment Strategy have been concluded. An Assessment and Design of Hydro-meteorological network was undertaken and hydrometric equipment procured and under installation.
From the investment strategy, six major program areas were identified and agreed by the two countries viz; Integrated Water Resources Management, Water security program targeting improved storage for multipurpose use, Environmental management program focusing on watershed management, wetlands management and control of point and non source pollution, food security program targeting agricultural development through investments in agricultural, livestock and fisheries enterprises, Wildlife and Tourism Management program targeting enhanced tourism and development of water for wildlife.
A number of capacity building programs as well as awareness raising were also undertaken. Supplemental financing was obtained from the World Bank NBTF in October for undertaking feasibility studies, capacity building as well as resource mobilization for the investments. With regard to market development, the Project has been successful in facilitating and influencing positively the availability of fishing gear in the project area not through its direct importation but through influencing the duties and tariff levels and through linking the private sector marketing networks with the fishing communities.
Experience shows also that the establishment and maintenance of a market information system to support associated project activities especially fisheries technology and processing is relevant and useful, but its sustainable development needs still to be perfected. The encouragement of the Fishermen Associations to get involved in marketing activities including the supply of fishing gear and other inputs as well as the marketing of fish and fish products and gradually the development of shore marketing infrastructure will be an appropriate step towards enhancing sustainability of fishing operations.
We thought we had good catches although they contained many low value juveniles and very small fish. We did not know that by catching the juveniles and the very small fish we were in reality damaging our future fish harvests and incomes'. They came and destroyed our nets and we got nothing. We could not get any compensation'.
Fishermen Abaca and Abdalla from the coastal village of Larde started understanding the dangers from the use of mosquito nets when they joined the co-management committees of fisheries resources. Now they use mm mesh size in their beach seine nets and catch mostly marketable fish with out harming marine resource sustainability.
With the legal dispensation to extend the trawler exclusion zone from nautical miles from the shore, achieved by the Project, Abaca and Abdalla are helping the Fisheries Administration to reduce encroachment. The Project has made inroads into the marine resource management issue and has demonstrated that by working together in a co-management partnership with the fishing communities, the fisheries institutions and the Fisheries Administration it is possible to lay the foundation for a long-term sustainable exploitation of the valuable natural marine resource to the benefit of the artisanal, semi-industrial and industrial fisheries.
The resource management issue involves development of strategies for fisheries resources research, improvement of fisheries statistics, monitoring and surveillance activities and the development of institutional arrangements to translate the resource management information into operational management action. By creating awareness of fisheries management issues and acceptance of the need for the imposition of discipline in the fishing effort by and within the communities, the Project has shown how to develop fisheries management mechanisms and implement them in close collaboration with the fishermen, the Fisheries Institutions and the Maritime Administration.
Surveillance and policing by the Ministry of Fisheries alone could not be sufficient to impose regulation of management of the fish resources and achieve discipline of fishermen. It requires the active participation of the fishermen themselves and their organisations. They would not undertake them for the interest of the state or because the law required so. The participatory research trials on different types of fishing gear and practices that IDPPE conducted in partnership with the fishermen convinced the latter that the tested gear can improve fishing effort by catching fish of higher quality that would assure favourable economic returns through higher prices and less risk to the resource base.
The NAFP has helped also by providing incentives to borrowers i. The presence of trawlers close to the shore inevitably leads to conflicts because of the destruction of fishing gear, particularly gill nets and long lines. It also harms the substrate and fish stocks to the detriment of the sustainable use of the resource. The co-management committees are now fighting along side with the Fisheries Administration to control encroachment and enforce the 3 nautical mile trawler exclusion zone from the coast, because it gives them wider territory for fishing activities, and reduces coastal harvesting pressure.
The establishment of the Artisanal Fishermen's Association of Moma and the Artisanal Fishermen's Association of Angoche has enhanced further empowerment of the fishermen and the co-management arrangement of fishing initiatives and programmes. The Co - management Committees provide a forum where the fishermen discuss regulation issues with the fisheries institutions and the Marine Administration and reach a consensus on the measures to be taken.
The project has helped the Fisheries Research Institute IIP to establish a successful monitoring system for the collection of data from the many artisanal fishery centres in the area. A total of aquatic species have been encountered in the catches. Three studies have commenced and others will be undertaken in order to assess biological parameters of all commercial species including maturity size, reproduction periods, spawning and migratory cycles and estimate the volume of the resource.
The knowledge of the characteristics of the resource is needed to guide development actions and resource management measures that would safeguard the long-term sustainability of the country fishery resources. As a result of these studies it was made possible for the Project to achieve the legal dispensation of mosquito nets and extension of the trawler exclusion zone 3 nautical miles from the coast. The establishment and successful development of the fisheries data collection system is now being replicated in other parts of the country through a programme supported by French Co-operation.
Momade is from Angoche town and has a boat but his fishing gear was very old and he could neither buy a new one nor buy material to repair it. Supply in his area was non-existent and prevailing prices were very high. Even if he had the money, purchases could be made only in Nacala, some km away. Through the Project, supplies of fishing gear and spare parts for boat rehabilitation are now stored in Angoche and sold at lower prices than before due to competition and lowering of taxes and tariffs.
His fish catches increased and his income improved. The NAFP has evolved along its life, both in terms of its component structure and the profile of activities within specific components. This process approach to planning has allowed the project to adapt in keeping with both accumulated experience and changing economic and social conditions.
In terms of the general approach, the NAFP has repeatedly validated the effectiveness of the integrated cross-sectoral methodology by targeting concurrently technical, commercial, social and institutional components. The Project directed institutional targeting towards strengthening the capacity and promotion of the formation of community-based organisations as a medium for self-mobilisation for development purposes.
The Project has been instrumental for the formation of community organisations 14 Resource and Co-management Committees, 2 Fishermen Associations, Water Committees and 4 Micro-project Committees with an estimated members, who actively participate in project activities aiming at improving the living conditions of the communities in the project areas. Experience shows that the micro-finance programme is a very appropriate way of addressing the financial needs of the poorest target group.
The stamp-based scheme has been better in targeting women as well as establishing a simpler and more comprehensible system. The Project directed functional targeting towards removing single or multiple critical constraints to artisanal fisheries development namely the supply of inputs, provision of credit and the development of infrastructure. The project has targeted through formal credit small- and large-scale traders to improve marketing and the accessibility of fishing equipment and other inputs in the area.
The Project has been able to access the whole target group through the Rural Infrastructure Rehabilitation component and the micro projects of the Community Development Fund. Especially, the Water Supply and Road Rehabilitation schemes have contributed significantly to raising the standard of living in the targeted communities. Road rehabilitation has also benefited many more people who live outside the project area. Developing infrastructure implies that the whole of the population in the targeted areas is benefiting from the project inputs.
The third ingredient is the primacy of market linkages between the fishermen and the private sector input distribution and marketing fish and fish products. The establishment and maintenance of a market information system to support associated project activities especially fisheries technology and processing has been proven to be relevant and useful.
The Project has also benefited traders living outside the project area, who now use the rehabilitated roads to market their goods in the fishing communities and buy fish to sell in the interior parts of the country. Sustainable methods for information collection have still to be perfected. Through judicious application of targeting modalities, the project has not only been able to spur the fishermen motivation to development and expand their fishing activities but also to promote an integrated, wider development within the fishery sector.
The experience here illustrates that development investments would have a far more reaching effect and impact, if the strategies shift from a narrow project area focus to a wider sectoral integrated programme approach. Such a shift of the artisanal sub-sector investment programme is consistent with current concerns in IFAD with a shift in development planning towards a wider programme approach.
Anchita is from Angoche town. She is rather shy, has 5 children and has always lived in poverty. She hardly made any savings in her life. Anchita told the Evaluation Mission that she joined a savings club about 18 months ago, very reluctantly in the beginning, and learned gradually how friends could get together and use savings to finance small generating activities. She borrowed from her group and started a micro-business trading small domestic items such as soap, cooking oil, matches etc. Anchita is now in a position to send her children to school and buy books for them.
A serious attempt has been made by the Project to empower women by integration into community committees and other project activities. In each of the water committees formed by the Project in the 42 communities, at least 2 members are women. In fact, in many committees more than 2 women were elected, who assume any duty including that of controller, mechanic, collector or cleaner.
Similarly, women participate in the micro-project committees for schools and health posts and participate actively along with men in fulfilling the duties expected of the committees. In the past, it has been assumed that the responsibility for decision on borehole siting and management of the wells was that of adult males.
However, field survey has indicated that children and women were often primarily responsible for issues to do with water in the family. This implies that it is not always precise to say that programmes have followed a participatory approach because adult males were consulted in community meetings. This meant that children and women most implicated in decisions about water have often been excluded from deliberations.
The Nampula project recognised this weakness and ensured that participation involved the full range of opinions and input and represented a truly participatory approach. Women were, also, able to join credit and savings associations and have been active particularly in savings. Women members of the groups were able to save and borrow in order to buy food commodities for trade within the communities. Active participation including women in these committees is a clear manifestation of a sense of ownership of the social services.
The NAFP created community awareness on development prospects through women empowerment and developed skills necessary to ensure that women in fishing communities effectively participate in decision-making processes that affect their well being. In a society traditionally dominated by men where women have no voice, the participation of women in water committees together with men is considered a very important and potentially far reaching project achievement.
This completion point reflects an understanding among the core partners in the evaluation process of the Nampula Artisanal Fisheries Project NAFP to adopt and use the lessons learned and recommendations from this evaluation exercise, not only in the implementation of the NAFP, but also in designing new projects and programmes aimed towards ameliorating the overall livelihood of artisanal fisheries communities.
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Annual report on results and impact Country strategy and programme Impact evaluations Project completion report validations Evaluation insights. Books and co-publications Brochures Newsletters Tools. Books and co-publications Newsletters. Brochures Tools. Events News Videos Podcasts. Events Videos. News Podcasts. Mozambique: interim evaluation of Nampula artisanal fisheries project. Community organisations and empowerment The below picture shows Marisa at a well built by the project in Moma equipped with a water pump. Recommendations : New associations and organisations require a significant amount of assistance with the bureaucratic process of formalisation and registration.
Institutional support and training to such bodies is perceived important to not only the development of capacity but also the establishment of realistic aims and objectives. No implementation of any participatory activity is commenced prior to ensuring that all and every step of each phase from planning to implementation has been understood and endorsed by the community.
Enhancement of participation and ownership of project activities by beneficiaries requires training, strong communication links and dialogue amongst extension staff, credit agency, the target communities and other institutions in the sector. The necessity of training the extensionists in effective communication skills and in improving the competence and overall capacity of the extension service becomes more than apparent. The empowerment process still requires formalisation, legal status and recognition by the authorities.
There is need to improve the institutional and legal framework for the establishment of co-management organisations, including definition of competence and authority. The process of the dissemination of research results in the project area and the strengthening of the extension service as a whole including the development of technical extension messages should be given further attention and support.
The Project promotes market development initiatives including, for instance, the establishment of shore infrastructure, landing facilities, auction halls, market information and provision of credit for the development of ice making and cold storage facilities by the private sector. The Project provides institutional support to build capacity of Fishermen Associations to get involved in trade and marketing activities.
The established institutional dialogue and the creation of a favourable environment for artisanal fisheries constitute a very sound activity in the process of regulation through empowerment of both the fishermen organisations and the fisheries institutions. The Project continues its efforts towards local authorities to accelerate legal recognition of the co-management organisations and associations including definition of competence and relevant powers.
The development and establishment of a fisheries data collection system was successful and the model is now being applied in other parts of the country though a programme supported by French Co-operation. The stock assessment studies will be better served if the study area presently concentrated along the narrow northern coast of the Sofala Bank is extended further southwards to cover both Zambezia and Sofala areas of the Bank.
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The NAFP has repeatedly validated the effectiveness of the integrated cross-sectoral methodology by targeting concurrently technical, commercial, social and institutional components. Future development interventions should shift from a narrow project focus to a wider sectoral integrated programme approach. Individual projects would address specific objectives within the larger programme. IFAD supported projects based on the general programme approach should make best use of the accumulated experience from the NAFP and include in the process stakeholder participation and empowerment.
To further alleviate social and economic constraints encountered by women, there is need to carry out a gender study to review current demand for services to the women in fishermen communities, assess the availability of these services from existing institutions and NGOs and develop a programme to meet local needs including initiatives in adult education and vocational training for undertaking income generating activities. Strategies to accelerate women empowerment process should include building awareness of the economic and social benefits accruing from women participation in income-generating activities, including access to employment opportunities and credit facilities as well as satisfying basic needs, health, education, etc.
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