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  1. Judith: A Play in Three Acts, Founded on the Apocryphal Book of "Judith,"
  2. Publisher Description
  3. Catalog Record: Judith. a play in three acts | HathiTrust Digital Library
  4. Introductions
  5. Judith; a play in three acts, founded on the apocryphal book of Judith. (Book, ) [badufyjuhi.cf]

In this story, a fictional Near East sovereign threatens the religious hegemony of the Jewish people. The powerful appeal of the Judith story has inspired scribes, composers, playwrights, poets, painters, and sculptors for over two millennia. The famous scene of the beheading of Holofernes with his own sword defines the Judith story. The motif of the sword became a defining attribute of the figure of Judith. It includes new archival source studies, the translation of unpublished manuscripts, the translation of texts previously unavailable in English, and essays in relatively unexplored areas in Judith Studies, such as Judith in the history of music.

It was stimulated by the work of feminist art historians, a renewed interest in apocryphal books of the Bible, a new ecumenism in the study of early Judaism and Christianity, and new approaches to early Jewish literature.

Book of Judith, New American Bible

The re discovery of the Italian Baroque artist Artemisia Gentileschi by feminist art historians 4 brought the Judith theme new cultural prominence. The exhibition catalogue was introduced with an essay by Roland Barthes. Scholarship is committed to the past, but it is increasingly gender inclusive, international and eclectic. What is the case for Judith Studies?

Why has Judith garnered so much multidisciplinary interest? It is beyond the scope of this introduction to attempt to define the relevance of Judith for the study of culture and religion in the humanities. Parsing the meaning the narrative has captured is the work of Judith Studies. ARTstor, the digital image library, has assembled a digital collection of Judith images, some of which are published here, accessible through ARTstor portals at most university, college, government, and private research libraries.

Jstor, the digital archive, compiled and made available journal articles on Judith for the benefit of scholars working in the project. Under the direction of the Dorot Jewish Division of the New York Public Library a comprehensive bibliography of Judith Studies has been compiled, the first of its kind. In addition, all of the papers published here can be read for free or downloaded in a digital format for a nominal price as an alternative to purchase.

And the results are being made available to readers, quickly, cheaply, and with opportunities for them to engage, discuss, correct, and carry the work forward. The Judith Project, which is ongoing, is therefore tangible proof of the success of new approaches to producing, validating, and disseminating knowledge. It is a practical vindication of the Re: Enlightenment Project www. The organization of the book provides a provisional schema for Judith Studies, which is the result of and will require multidisciplinary collaboration.

Within this schema, the papers cover new ground and revisit old terrain. The Sword of Judith is not a comprehensive guide to Judith Studies, however. By design, the essays are concise and narrowly focused on specific research agendas within discrete disciplines. The case studies selected for the Judith Project do not begin to exhaust the diverse research interests of Juditheans working in the field today.

We take this as a positive sign that indicates the need for new projects of this kind. The value of information does not survive the moment in which it was new. It lives only at that moment; it has to surrender itself to it completely and explain itself to it without losing any time. A story is different. It does not expend itself. It preserves and concentrates its strength and is capable of releasing it even after a long time.

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Walter Benjamin, The Storyteller 8. I will point out recent scholarship addressing the importance of the Book of Judith in the history of Jewish religion, women in the ancient world and the history of the book. The introduction will conclude by framing the subject of the essays that follow.

Modern scholars place the writing of the Book of Judith in the Hellenistic era, ca.

A play in three acts

What does beheading symbolize? Paul was beheaded; Jesus crucified. In the twelfth century, in his treatise on justifiable tyrannicide, Bishop John of Salisbury allegorically interpreted the beheading of Holofernes as the sundering of an unjust king as head from the body politic. For Sigmund Freud, beheading symbolized castration. This was the most popular reading of Judith iconography in the twentieth century. Judith brings the head back from the Assyrian camp to the battlements of Bethulia to inspire the Jews to rout the Assyrian aggressors.

The head of Holofernes is exhibited as a war trophy. From the outset, the text introduces the threat of rape. Judith is aware that she may be raped when alone with Holofernes and prays with a loud voice:. O God, my God, also listen to me, the widow. And she rolled his body from the mattress and took the mosquito netting from the posts. And she set forth shortly afterward and handed the head of Olophernes over to her favorite slave, and she threw it in her bag of provision.

There is also one story named for a woman, the Story of Susanna, found in an addition to the Book of Daniel.

Judith: A Play in Three Acts, Founded on the Apocryphal Book of "Judith,"

Of the four women — Esther, Ruth, Susanna, and Judith — Judith is by far the most autonomous, politically engaged, and spiritually accomplished. As a character, Judith is complex. She embodies political shrewdness and military effectiveness, yet she lives a life of simple piety, chastity, and temperance. She is a public figure — charitable and civically influential. As penitent before her God, she is vulnerable. She has the longest genealogy of any woman in the Bible and, like Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Moses, she composes a biblical song, yet, unlike Deborah, she is not a prophet.

Her role in Second Temple society is that of daughter and widow.

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Judith not only saves her people; her resourcefulness and faith also make her a symbol of her people. Judith is synonymous with Judaism itself, etymologically and symbolically. The book was produced during a key point in the history of print media and print culture — the transition from the scroll to the codex and the invention of the book as we know it today. As Karen Van der Toorn writes: All books written before that time were not books in the modern sense of the term.

The Jewish books that began to appear after b. Hellenism created the conditions under which the new phenomenon could occur. Istilah dan frasa umum adventures American American Library Association Appleton Apprentice Course assistant bibliography boys brarian brary Bulletin cards catalogue charge circulation club collection committee county board Doran edition English fiction Fond du Lac Fox Lake France Free Library girl give given high school Houghton illus illustrations industrial interest League league of nations lectures libra librarian Library Association library board Library Commission Library School library service loan Madison magazines Manitowoc material meeting ment methods Milwaukee county Milwaukee public library Miss note see Booklist organization paper peace practical printed problems public library readers reconstruction reference rural school library SELECTED LIST shelves short stories small library soldiers suggestions teacher teacher-librarians tion town traveling library United University of Wisconsin village volumes waukee week Wiscon Wisconsin Library women young.

Informasi bibliografi. Wisconsin Library Bulletin, Volume 24 Tampilan utuh - The canonicity of Judith is rejected by Protestants though many Anglicans consider it to be either an apocryphal or deuterocanonical book , who accept as the Old Testament only those books that are found in the Jewish canon. The story revolves around Judith, a daring and beautiful widow, who is upset with her Jewish countrymen for not trusting God to deliver them from their foreign conquerors. She goes with her loyal maid to the camp of the enemy general, Holofernes , with whom she slowly ingratiates herself, promising him information on the Israelites.

Gaining his trust, she is allowed access to his tent one night as he lies in a drunken stupor. She decapitates him, then takes his head back to her fearful countrymen. The Assyrians, having lost their leader, disperse, and Israel is saved. The Book of Judith can be split into two parts or "acts" of approximately equal length. Chapters 1—7 describe the rise of the threat to Israel, led by the evil king Nebuchadnezzar and his sycophantic general Holofernes, and is concluded as Holofernes' worldwide campaign has converged at the mountain pass where Judith's village, Bethulia , is located.

Part I, although at times tedious in its description of the military developments, develops important themes by alternating battles with reflections and rousing action with rest. The New Oxford Annotated Apocrypha identifies a clear chiastic pattern in both "acts", in which the order of events is reversed at a central moment in the narrative i.

Publisher Description

Conclusion about Judith Most contemporary exegetes , such as Biblical scholar Gianfranco Ravasi , generally tend to ascribe Judith to one of several contemporaneous literary genres, reading it as an extended parable in the form of a historical fiction , or a propaganda literary work from the days of the Seleucid oppression. It has also been called "an example of the ancient Jewish novel in the Greco-Roman period.

There are also thematic connections to the revenge of Simeon and Levi on Shechem after the rape of Dinah in Gen. In the Christian West from the patristic period on, Judith was invoked in a wide variety of texts as a multi-faceted allegorical figure. Her gender made her a natural example of the biblical paradox of "strength in weakness"; she is thus paired with David and her beheading of Holofernes paralleled with that of Goliath — both deeds saved the Covenant People from a militarily superior enemy.

Judith , the heroine of the book.

Catalog Record: Judith. a play in three acts | HathiTrust Digital Library

She is the daughter of Merari, a Simeonite , and widow of a certain Manasses. She uses her charm to become an intimate friend of Holofernes, but finally beheads him allowing Israel to counter-attack the Assyrians. Holofernes , the villain of the book. He is a devout soldier of his king, whom he wants to see exalted in all lands. He is given the task of destroying the rebels who didn't support the king of Nineveh in his resistance against Cheleud and the king of Media , until Israel also becomes a target of his military campaign.

Judith's charm occasions his death. Nebuchadnezzar , claimed here to be the king of Nineveh and Assyria. He is so proud that he wants to affirm his strength as a sort of divine power. Holofernes, his Turtan commanding general , is ordered to take revenge on those who refused to ally themselves with him. Bagoas , a Persian name denoting an official of Holofernes.

He is the first one who discovers Holofernes' beheading. Achior , an Ammonite king at Nebuchadnezzar's court; he warns the king of Assyria of the power of the God of Israel but is mocked. He is the first one to recognize Holofernes' head brought by Judith in the city, and also the first one to praise God. Oziah , governor of Bethulia; together with Cabri and Carmi , he rules over Judith's city.


It is generally accepted that the Book of Judith is ahistorical. The fictional nature "is evident from its blending of history and fiction, beginning in the very first verse, and is too prevalent thereafter to be considered as the result of mere historical mistakes. Thus, the great villain is "Nebuchadnezzar, who ruled over the Assyrians " , yet the historical Nebuchadnezzar II was the king of Babylonia.

Nevertheless, there have been various attempts by both scholars and clergy to understand the characters and events in the Book as allegorical representations of actual personages and historical events. Much of this work has focused on linking Nebuchadnezzar with various conquerors of Judea from different time periods and, more recently, linking Judith herself with historical female leaders, including Queen Salome Alexandra , Judea's only female monarch BCE and its last ruler to die while Judea remained an independent kingdom.

The identity of Nebuchadnezzar was unknown to the Church Fathers, but some of them attempted an improbable identification with Artaxerxes III Ochus — BC , not on the basis of the character of the two rulers, but due to the presence of a "Holofernes" and a "Bagoas" in Ochus' army. In his comparison between the Book of Judith and Assyrian history, Catholic priest and scholar Fulcran Vigouroux — attempts an identification of Nabuchodonosor king of Assyria with Ashurbanipal — BC and his rival Arphaxad king of the Medes with Phraortes — BC , the son of Deioces , founder of Ecbatana.

As argued by Vigouroux, the two battles mentioned in the Septuagint version of the Book of Judith are a reference to the clash of the two empires in — and to Phraortes' death in battle in , after which Ashurbanipal continued his military actions with a large campaign starting with the Battle of the Ulaya River BC on the 18th year of this Assyrian king. Contemporary sources make reference to the many allies of Chaldea governed by Ashurbanipal's rebel brother Shamash-shum-ukin , including the Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah , which were subjects of Assyria and are mentioned in the Book of Judith as victims of Ashurbanipal's Western campaign.

During that period, as in the Book of Judith, there was no king in Judah since the legitimate sovereign, Manasseh of Judah , was being held captive in Nineveh at this time. The profanation of the temple Judith might have been that under king Hezekiah see 2 Chronicles , xxix, 18—19 , who reigned between c.

Although Nebuchadnezzar and Ashurbanipal's campaigns show direct parallels, the main incident of Judith's intervention has never been recorded in official history. Also, the reasons for the name changes are difficult to understand, unless the text was transmitted without character names before they were added by the Greek translator, who lived centuries later. Moreover, Ashurbanipal is never referenced by name in the Bible, except perhaps for the corrupt form " Asenappar " in 2 Chronicles and Ezra or the anonymous title "The King of Assyria" in the 2 Kings , which means his name might have never been recorded by Jewish historians.

Under this theory, the story, although fictional, would be set in the time of Queen Salome Alexandra , the only Jewish regnant queen, who reigned over Judea from 76 to 67 BC.

Judith; a play in three acts, founded on the apocryphal book of Judith. (Book, ) [badufyjuhi.cf]

Like Judith, the Queen had to face the menace of a foreign king who had a tendency to destroy the temples of other religions. Both women were widows whose strategical and diplomatic skills helped in the defeat of the invader. The territory of Judean occupation includes the territory of Samaria , something which was possible in Maccabean times only after John Hyrcanus reconquered those territories. Thus, the presumed Sadducee author of Judith would desire to honor the great Pharisee Queen who tried to keep both Sadducees and Pharisees united against the common menace.