- FRENCH THOUGHT (PHILOSOPHY)
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- Michel De Montaigne
Montaigne believed that a knowledge of devastating effects of vice is calculated to excite an aversion to vicious habits. In , Montaigne, whose health had always been excellent, started suffering from painful kidney stones , a tendency he inherited from his father's family. Throughout this illness, he would have nothing to do with doctors or drugs. His journey was also a pilgrimage to the Holy House of Loreto , to which he presented a silver relief depicting him, his wife, and their daughter kneeling before the Madonna, considering himself fortunate that it should be hung on a wall within the shrine.
This was published much later, in , after its discovery in a trunk that is displayed in his tower. After Fabri examined Montaigne's Essais the text was returned to him on 20 March Montaigne had apologized for references to the pagan notion of "fortuna" as well as for writing favorably of Julian the Apostate and of heretical poets, and was released to follow his own conscience in making emendations to the text.
While in the city of Lucca in , he learned that, like his father before him, he had been elected mayor of Bordeaux. He returned and served as mayor. He was re-elected in and served until , again moderating between Catholics and Protestants. The plague broke out in Bordeaux toward the end of his second term in office, in Montaigne continued to extend, revise, and oversee the publication of the Essais.
In he wrote its third book and also met Marie de Gournay , an author who admired his work and later edited and published it. Montaigne later referred to her as his adopted daughter. In his case the disease "brought about paralysis of the tongue",  especially difficult for one who once said, "the most fruitful and natural play of the mind is conversation.
I find it sweeter than any other action in life; and if I were forced to choose, I think I would rather lose my sight than my hearing and voice. He was buried nearby. Later his remains were moved to the church of Saint Antoine at Bordeaux. The church no longer exists: it became the Convent des Feuillants , which also has disappeared. His heart is preserved in the parish church of Saint-Michel-de-Montaigne. His humanism finds expression in his Essais , a collection of a large number of short subjective essays on various topics published in that were inspired by his studies in the classics, especially by the works of Plutarch and Lucretius.
FRENCH THOUGHT (PHILOSOPHY)
Montaigne's writings are studied as literature and philosophy around the world. Inspired by his consideration of the lives and ideals of the leading figures of his age, he finds the great variety and volatility of human nature to be its most basic features. He describes his own poor memory, his ability to solve problems and mediate conflicts without truly getting emotionally involved, his disdain for the human pursuit of lasting fame, and his attempts to detach himself from worldly things to prepare for his timely death. He writes about his disgust with the religious conflicts of his time.
He believed that humans are not able to attain true certainty. The longest of his essays, Apology for Raymond Sebond , marking his adoption of Pyrrhonism contains his famous motto, "What do I know? Montaigne considered marriage necessary for the raising of children, but disliked strong feelings of passionate love because he saw them as detrimental to freedom. In education, he favored concrete examples and experience over the teaching of abstract knowledge intended to be accepted uncritically. The Essais exercised an important influence on both French and English literature, in thought and style.
Although not a scientist, Montaigne made observations on topics in psychology. His thoughts and ideas covered topics such as thought, motivation, fear, happiness, child education , experience, and human action. Child education was among the psychological topics that he wrote about. He believed it was necessary to educate children in a variety of ways. He also disagreed with the way information was being presented to students. It was being presented in a way that encouraged students to take the information that was taught to them as absolute truth.
Students were denied the chance to question the information. Therefore, students could not truly learn.
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Montaigne believed that, to learn truly, a student had to take the information and make it their own. At the foundation Montaigne believed that the selection of a good tutor was important for the student to become well educated. The tutor also should allow for discussions and debates to be had. Such a dialogue was intended to create an environment in which students would teach themselves. They would be able to realize their mistakes and make corrections to them as necessary. Individualized learning was integral to his theory of child education. He argued that the student combines information already known with what is learned and forms a unique perspective on the newly learned information.
Experience also was a key element to learning for Montaigne. Tutors needed to teach students through experience rather than through the mere memorization of information often practised in book learning. In doing so, he argued that students would become active learners, who could claim knowledge for themselves. He argued against the popular way of teaching in his day, encouraging individualized learning.
He believed in the importance of experience, over book learning and memorization. Ultimately, Montaigne postulated that the point of education was to teach a student how to have a successful life by practising an active and socially interactive lifestyle.
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Gabrielle Chamarat and Alain Goulet ed. Myriam Boucharenc and Claude Leroy ed. See all. Literature Philosophy Eighteenth century France. Champion, , p. Desan — 14 James Supple Paris: H. VII , p. Reprinted in Montaigne et Marie de Gournay, ed. Marcel Tetel Paris: H.
Yvonne Bellenger Paris: H.
Claude Blum Paris: H. XXXII, , p. X , p. Elio Moselle Fasano: Schena Editore, , p. Jean Balsamo Paris: Klincksieck, , p. XII , p. James Supples Paris: H.
Giovanni Dotoli Fasano: Schena Editore, , p. Il discorso politico e letterario nella Francia del cinquecento, ed. Elio Mosele Fasano: Schena Editore, , p. Franco Giacone Geneva: Droz, , p. XV , p. Rosanna Gorris Fasano: Schena Editore, , p. Philippe Desan Paris: H. Champion, ; revised and enlarged edition, ; reedition, Classiques Garnier, Desan — 17 XVI , p.
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XVIII , p. Paul J. Smith and Karl A. Enenkel Leiden-Boston: Brill, , p. Desan — 18 XX , p. Philippe Desan, Geneva: Droz, , p. XXII , p. Gianni Paganini Naples: Liguori Editore, , p.